Endnotes

1  On William Hooper, see Florence Hooper’s The Hoopers of Baltimore. Her history is perhaps the source for 1788 and Londonderry, Ireland, being the generally accepted date and place of birth for William Hooper. In Baltimore census records from 1850 and 1860, however, his birth place is given as England and his implied date of birth 1790 and 1792 respectively. A letter written by William Hooper’s son Charles H. Hooper, dated May 3, 1847, describes William Hooper as “now in his 56th year.” See Ancestry.com, 1850 United States Federal Census, record for Wm Hooper; and 1860 United States Federal Census, record for William Hooper. There exists a handsome portrait (reproduced here) of William Hooper as an elderly “Gentleman” (as he is described in the 1860 census) by an anonymous portraitist. A digital copy was available at the Baltimore County Public Library website prior to 2014, with a note indicating that the original was at the Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore. However, curators there were unable to locate it in response to my inquiry in June 2014.

2  They are thus listed in Matchett’s Baltimore Director . . . for 1835–6. Matchett’s 1816 Baltimore Directory, p. 86, indicates that William Hooper, sailmaker, was working independently. Florence Hooper, The Hoopers of Baltimore, p. 1, dates the partnership with Hardester to 1823, and, indeed, Keenan’s Baltimore Directory for 1822 & 1823, pp. 123 and 139, indicates that Benjamin Hardester (or Hardister) and William Hooper were partners. George G. Buck suggests an earlier date for the Hooper-Hardester partnership, noting that Hardester’s partner had been Jacob Grafflin and that when Grafflin retired in about 1814 and had no son of an age to succeed him, William Hooper stepped in. Relations between the Grafflins and Hoopers were evidently cordial; William Hooper’s daughter Laura Jane Hooper married Grafflin’s son, George Washington Grafflin, in 1845 (see Dodd, Maryland Marriages, 1655–1850, record for Laura J. Hooper).

3  See Buhl, “A History of the Hooper Mills,” p. 2. On the firm, including more recent developments, see also Henry E. Hooper’s “Witness Post: Wm. E. Hooper and Sons Company.”

4  See Matchett’s Baltimore Director, . . . up to June, 1842, p. 210; see also the “Obituary [for] James A. Hooper.”

5  The claim regarding the Kate Hooper’s size ranking appeared in the “Obituary [for] James A. Hooper.” Her speed is discussed in Howe and Matthews’s American Clipper Ships, vol. 1, pp. 333–34. Family tradition credits the Kate Hooper with bringing back a set of rose medallion china and other porcelain. However, as in many families, there is a skeleton: Parr’s grandfather appears also to have engaged in transporting human cargo. In 2001 the archivist Robert J. Plowman published his research on this subject in “The Voyage of the ‘Coolie’ Ship Kate Hooper October 3, 1857 – March 26, 1858.” During the voyage, Chinese laborers, who were theoretically indentured but in practice enslaved, mutinied; the incident figured in a report presented to Congress in April 1860 by Massachusetts Representative Thomas Dawes Eliot in support of a resolution to prohibit “The Coolie Trade” (see “Report on the Coolie Trade”).

6  On I. M. Parr, see “Mr. Israel M. Parr Dead”; Barnard, Early Maltby, p. 289; and Hall’s Baltimore: Its History and its People, vol. 3, pp. 644–45.

7  See The Blue Book: Textile Directory, p. 213. See also Scott, The Forgotten Corner, pp. 40–42.

8  See Montgomery, “Pennsylvania Regiment of Cavalry,” pp. 838 and 845. On the latter page, the surname is given as “Brown.” Original documents in the National Archives and Records Administration related to Bowen’s service and pension have been digitized by fold3.com.

9  Folger Pope is variously described as having loaned money to the government and as having bought war bonds. I have not thus far been able to locate historical documentation of these activities.

10  Information taken from newspaper clippings handed down in the family without notations regarding sources.

11  “Mr. I. M. Parr Dies at his Country Home.”

12  See Register of the Graduates and Alumni of St. John’s College at Annapolis, Maryland, pp. 51 (Robert, 1872) and 54 (Herbert, 1874).

13  Parr refers to his Baltimore home as “1626,” and this is the Bolton Street house number recalled in the family. However, up until 1915, Baltimore directories and the Baltimore Blue Book give the house number 1526.

14  On his freshman year participation, see “Cornell Bird Men Soon Will Fly.”

15  “Model Contest.”

16  The Cornellian, vol. 45, p. 166.

17  The Cornellian, vol. 45, p. 473; “L. R. Longfield, ‘13, First in Close Finish,” p. 1.

18  On his employment at Lanston Monotype, see “Alumni Notes,” Cornell Alumni News, p. 354.

19  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated.

20  Wikipedia, “USS Jacob Jones (DD–61).

21  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of August 7, 1917.

22  See “Introductory Proceedings,” p. xxxiv. That Frank B. King was one of Parr’s sponsors is apparent from a letter dated December 1, 1919, in my possession, to King from Daniel H. Cox, secretary and treasurer of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

23  See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Parr Hooper.

24  This state of affairs has been noted by many historians, most recently Samuel Hynes in The Unsubstantial Air: American Fliers in the First World War: “Eagerness plus belatedness equals muddle, and muddle would be the condition of the U.S. Air Service, its training program and its squadrons, throughout the war” (Chapter 3).

25On the Aviation Signal Corps and pilot training when America entered the war, see Chapter 4 (“Training at Home for War Overseas”) of Rebecca Hancock Cameron’s Training to Fly; and chapter 4 (“Organizing the Schools of Military Aeronautics”) of Bingham’s An Explorer in the Air Service.

26  Bingham, An Explorer in the Air Service, p. 37. Much of the following description of training is drawn from Parr’s letters from the period.

27  Bingham, An Explorer in the Air Service, pp. 42–43.

28  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of June 26, 1917.

29  See Bingham, An Explorer in the Air Service, p. 52, regarding aspects of training that did not correspond to the practice of pursuit pilots in France.

30  Bingham, An Explorer in the Air Service, pp. 37–38.

31  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letters of, respectively, July 22, 24, 28 (two quotations), August 2, 6, & 19, 1917.

32  Bingham, An Explorer in the Air Service, p. 47.

33  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of August 17, 1917.

34  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of August 3, 1917.

35  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of August 17, 1917.

36  See Patterson, “HD Stier World War I Insignia.”

37  Although not in the Squadron 7 photo, Murray Kenneth Guthrie apparently also graduated with this class. See “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

38  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of August 25, 1917.

39  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of August 22, 1917.

40  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of Thursday morning [September 13, 1917].

41  “Carmania” and Ljungström, “Carmania (1): 1905–1932.”

42  Chambers, “Corporal Lawrence Dudley Chambers,” entry for September 21, 1917.

43  Wikipedia, “Dazzle camouflage.” See also Lewis, Dear Bert, p. 33, for George Lewis’s photo of a camouflaged ship.

44  Wikipedia, “Committee for Relief in Belgium.”

45 The authorship of and sources for War Birds have been much discussed and disputed. Burke Davis, in his War Bird: The Life and Times of Elliott White Springs, pp. 121–22 (and notes to the chapter), provides an overview of the controversy as understood in 1987. More recently, David K. Vaughan has been able to consult archival material previously unavailable, including a heretofore unknown, second diary probably by Grider; see his account in Letters from a War Bird: The World War I Correspondence of Elliott White Springs, pp. 282–94 and appendices. A critical edition—or at least a reliably annotated one—of War Birds remains a desideratum.

46  La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, p. 167.

47  Wikipedia, “Albert Spalding (violinist).”

48  Entry for September 29, 1917; see also entry for September 25, 1917, as well as La Guardia, pp. 165–66 & 168.

49  See “Colonel Leslie MacDill.” This biography indicates he was not made a major until 1920, but Parr, War Birds, and La Guardia accord him the rank in 1917.

50  See Cooper, “Leslie MacDill 1889–1938.”

51  See The Norman, Remington Co, Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1920, p. 292; and Remington, Baltimore Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1915, p. 307.

52  Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for B Carter Millikin (1918).

53 Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passengers Lists, 1878–1960, record for Carmania arriving at Liverpool October 2, 1917.

54  See Ancestry.com, 1911 Census of Canada, records for Gordon S Harrower and Robert H Harrower, which indicate they were born in October 1895 and April 1984 respectively. Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Hamilton Harrower, gives his birth year as 1893.

55  See Robert Hamilton Harrower’s attestation form at Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, where yet another birth year is given (1895); and Royal Military College of Canada, The Stone Frigate, p. 289.

56 See Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Gordon S Harrower.

57  Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield, entry for September 23, 1917, for GS Harrover [sic].

58 Wikipedia, “Scout (aircraft).”

59  Wikipedia, “Flag Signals.”

60  Thompson, Trench Knives and Mustard Gas, p. 7.

61  See Chambers, “Corporal Lawrence Dudley Chambers,” entry for October 1, 1917; Australian War Memorial, Collection item description for Arthur William Miller’s (typescript) “narrative chronological account of voyage on troopship ‘Themistocles’ . . . “; and Mouncey, De Mouncy diary, entry for September 21, 1917 (p. 36). The major discrepancy in the accounts relates to the Medic. Chambers describes how “on the evening of the 1st Oct we watched the American & Canadian transports & the munitions boats leave us most likely going to Liverpool. Now there were only five of us left. NZ Ruahine and Mokoia. Australian Miltiades Carpathia & Medic.” Mouncey, on the other hand, states that: “The Medic was left behind at Halifax owing to her not being speedy enough for us. Her compliment [sic] was transferred to the Orrisa [sic] & the Ovila [sic]” (p. 37). However, noted below, the Medic arrived at Liverpool on Oct. 12, 1917. I find no record of her having docked first in Glasgow, where the Ruahine (and Chambers), the Mokoia, the Miltiades, and the Carpathia arrived on October 2, 1917, although lack of evidence does not rule out the interim docking that Chambers’s diary suggests. That there was some transfer of passengers from the Medic to the Orita in Halifax is suggested by records relating to Australian chaplain Montague Golden Hinsby, who is described as having embarked from Sydney August 1, 1917, on the Medic and as arriving in Liverpool on the Orita; see State Library of New South Wales, collection record details for Hinsby’s Papers and for Hinsby’s Diary. It should be noted that the date given in Chambers’s account (or in the transcription thereof), for the convoy’s departure from Halifax (“Saturday 30th Sep 17”) is in error, as are some other dates in the account/transcription. A further unexplained discrepancy arises from Parr’s reference to fourteen, not sixteen, ships in the convoy, which is corroborated by the diaries of Ludwig L. Deetjen (entry for September 23, 1917) and Clement Cutler Foss (entry for September 21, 1917).

62  Mouncey, De Mouncey diary, Friday 21st [i.e., September 21, 1917], p. 37.

63  On the departure date of the Anchises, see Mouncey, De Mouncey diary, p. 2; for the Medic, see State Library of New South Wales, Collection record detail for Hinsby’s Papers; for the Miltiades, see National Archives of Australia, “William John McKinlay Baird Military Record”; for the Themistocles, see Australian War Memorial, First World War Embarkation Roll, record for Charles Benjamin Thompson.

64  For the departure dates of the Mokoia and Ruahine, see Auckland War Memorial Museum, Troopships, records for HMNZT 91 [Mokoia] and HMNZT 92 [Ruahine].

65  See Mouncey’s diary entry for September 8, 1917 (pp. 23–24).

66  On New York as the point of departure for the Carmania, see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Carmania arriving at Liverpool October 2, 1917; on the Carpathia, see Guthrie et al., “The Carpathians,” p. 4; on the Kroonland, see Thompson, Trench Knives and Mustard Gas, p. 5; on the Mongolia, see Solway, [Deposition].

67  On the Grampian, see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Grampion [sic] arriving at Liverpool October 9, 1917; on the Ionian, see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Ionian arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917. The manifest for the Canada contains no personal names and is thus not indexed at Ancestry.com. It can, however, be found there by locating other ships such as the Grampian or Ionian that docked at Liverpool in October 1917 and then scrolling through the film to image 117.

68  On the Orissa, see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for the Orissa arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917, which indicates the ship started from Coronal [Chile]; on the Orita, see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for the Orita arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917, which indicates the ship originated in Valparaiso [Chile].

69  Foss, in his diary entry for October 1, 1917, remarks: “Sighted Hollyhead after having left all ships except Victoria and one destroyer about 8:45. ”

70  For the arrival of the Carpathia, see Guthrie et al., “The Carpathians,” p. 4; for the Mokoia, see Auckland War Memorial Museum, Troopships, record for HMNZT 91 [Mokoia]; for the Miltiades see National Archives of Australia, “William John McKinlay Baird Military Record”; for the Ruahine see Auckland War Memorial Museum, Troopships, record for HMNZT 92 [Ruahine]; and for the Themistocles see Baldey, “Sapper Charles Benjamin Thompson.”

71  For the arrival of the Anchises see Mouncey, p. 37; for the Canada, see The National Archives [United Kingdom], collection description for “Liverpool: SS Canada . . . “; for the Carmania see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for the Carmania arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917; for the Ionian see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Ionian arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917; for the the Kroonland see Hartwell, “Captain Horace Baker”; for the Mongolia, see Lewis, ed., Dear Bert, p. 36; for the Orissa see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Orissa arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917; and for the Orita see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Orita arriving Liverpool October 2, 1917. For the arrival date of the Grampian, see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Grampion [sic] arriving Liverpool October 9, 1917; for the Medic see Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Medic arriving Liverpool October 12, 1917 (with 430 “Labourers in Govt. Service,” all of whom had embarked at Sydney.).

72 Wikipedia, “RMS Franconia (1910).”

73 Parr’s shipmate, Charles Heater (about whom see Parr’s shipboard letter, entry of September 30, 1917), in a letter written in 1987, remarked that the cadets “were glad to get away from . . . instruction in the Italian language under the vigorous Lt. LaGuardia” (see Skinner, “Commanding the 11th”). La Guardia had been commissioned a first lieutenant in August 1917 but, according to his autobiography, was made a captain before leaving the United States (see La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, pp. 165 and 169).

74  See “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].” On Fry generally, see “Lieutenant Clarence Horne Fry, R.F.C.,” which includes excerpts from his letters home.

75  Wikipedia, “Robert W. Service.”

76  Purdue University, The Debris for 1917, p. 115; “Ground School Graduations [for September 1, 1917].”

77  Hadley, “Foreign Aviation Detachments,” p. 4 (= p. 286 of Histories of the Bolling Mechanics).

78  And see Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments,” p. 131, for yet another explanation of this “foul-up”: “another detachment of cadets had left New York for England on September 25 and London was cabled to the effect that a cadet detachment was en route for training in England. When MacDill’s group arrived soon after, it was perhaps inevitable that a mistake would be made.” Sater’s account is perhaps based on that of Claude E. Duncan (who was among those who went to Italy), quoted by Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 296.

79  See Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for for Carmania arriving Liverpool, October 2, 1917; this includes only civilian passengers.

80  The roster has 151 names; it does not include Charles Edward Brown, who was almost certainly a member of the detachment; see commentary and notes to Parr’s letter of December 18, 1917. Uncertainty as to the exact number of men in the detachment goes back at least to Dwyer’s “Report on Air Service Flying Training Department in England.” He records (p. 1) that there were fifty-three cadets in the first detachment sent to Oxford and 149 in the second (p. 2). However, in his summary listing of officers trained (p.3), he lists 204 cadets, which would indicate that the number in the second detachment was 151, the number fifty-three for the first detachment being well documented. Elliott White Springs, who was for a time in charge of the detachment, consistently gives the round number 150 in his letters home from this period (Springs, Letters from a War Bird, pp. 32–47).

81  Wynn, “Flying Corps,” p. 83.

82  Craig and Gibson, Oxford University Roll of Service, p. xi.

83  On the two Oxford detachments, see Dwyer, “Report on Air Service Flying Training Department in England,” Rebecca Cameron, Training to Fly, p. 158, and Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments.”

84  See Taber, Arthur Richmond Taber: A Memorial Record Compiled by his Father, letter of October 8, 1917.

85  Heater, quoted in Skinner, “Commanding the 11th.”

86  Rebecca Cameron, Training to Fly, pp. 158–59.

87  See Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments,” p. 131: “Jeff Dwyer was put in charge of both Oxford groups. Although only a first lieutenant, he ran the whole show from his office in London and did it very well, too.”

88 Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Joseph Frederick Stillman; Nettleton, “Joseph Frederick Stillman, Jr. Class of 1915”; “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

89  See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Mr Joseph K Milnor; and “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

90  Cushing, The Life of Sir William Osler Collection, p. 1269.

91 On the Oslers, see McGill University Library, The William Osler Photo.

92  On Adeley’s appointment, see “Royal Flying Corps,” p. 10491. The photo album of second Oxford detachment member Joseph Kirkbride Milnor includes a photo of Adeley with Geoffrey Dwyer on p. 45.

93  On Beor’s appointment, see “The British Air Services,” p. 1008.

94  For Henry Pulteney Wright’s birth and death dates and his involvement in St. Luke’s, see St. Luke’s General Hospital, Charter of incorporation and by-laws of St. Luke’s General Hospital, Ottawa, p. 7, where there is a biography of Wright. For his relationship to Osler, see McGill University Library, The William Osler Photo Collection, in particular the description attached to the photo captioned “William Osler, Nona Gwyn, M. Collis Sands, and Ottilie Wright in the Garden at 13 Norham Gardens, 1910.” In the (comparatively) “small world” department: H. P. Wright had been physician to the family of Alexander Jamieson Russell (1807–1887), great grandfather of James Russell McQueen, who married Parr’s sister Margaret.

95  Bensley, “Marion Gertrude Wright (1896–1987).”

96  Lady Osler, writing to Harvey Cushing on August 19, 1917, mentions that Phoebe was a V.A.D. in a Canadian hospital near Cushing; see abstract of the letter at McGill University Library, William Osler Letter Index. Cushing, in a journal entry for November 11, 1917, when he was in Boulogne indicates that Phoebe is there working in the office of Col. [Harry Woodburne] Blaylock (deputy commissioner of the Canadian Red Cross); see Cushing, From a Surgeon’s Journal, p. 255.

97  See McGill University Library, The William Osler Photo Collection; Ancestry.com and Genealogical Research Library, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1801–1928, record for Campbell Palmer Howard; and Leroux, “Major Allan Campbell Palmer Howard.” (Howard’s military records include the first name “Allan,” but it does not appear in later records.)

98  The names and birthdates of the seven children of Henry Pulteney and Marion Grahame Wright are available at Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, records for Attil Wright [sic], etc.

99  For William Richard Wright’s date of birth and occupation, see his “Officers’ Declaration Paper” at Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for William Richard Wright. For his date of death and burial site, see Veterans Affairs Canada, “In memory of Lieutenant William Richard Wright,” which also provides a brief biography and photos.

100 See Palmer Howard Wright’s attestation paper at the Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Palmer Howard Wright. The record of his marriage is at Ancestry.com and Genealogical Research Library, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1801–1928, Palmer Howard Wright.

101 See Henry Pulteney Grahame Wright’s attestation paper at Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Henry Paltenez [sic] Wright. His marriage certificate is at Ancestry.com and Genealogical Research Library, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1801–1928, record for Henry Pulteney Wright. See further Leroux, “Major Henry Pulteney Wright.”

102  See entry for AB Wright in Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield. Arthur Banks Wright’s mother was a Graham, so the connection may have been on Mrs. Wright’s side.

103  See “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917]”; Harvard University, Quinquennial Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates of Harvard University, 1636–1930, p. 726 (A.B. Hamilton 1913); and Mead, Harvard’s Military Record in the World War, p. 915 (A.M. Harvard 1914).

104  See Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 43 and note.

105  See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Clara E Anderson (1918).

106  On Miss Brown, see “Driver’s Bravery in War Recalled”; on her mother see, “Admirable Hostel in Boulogne for Nursing Sisters.”

107  American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, “The History of the 42nd Infantry ‘Rainbow Division’.”

108  Gilbert, The First World War, p. 400.

109  Wikipedia, “SS Kroonland.”

110  Tomlinson, “Sir Arthur Ernest Cowley (1861–1931), Orientalist and Librarian.” On Osler as a Curator, see Cushing, The Life of Sir William Osler, p. 690.

111  Rebecca Cameron, Training to Fly, p. 159.

112  The list (War Flying in France, p. 28) includes [Wistar] Morris, [Frank J.] Newbury, and [George Arthur] Bond, all of whom had been in the August 25, 1917, ground school class at Princeton, but none of whom appears in lists of the second Oxford detachment (see “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917] and “Roster of Second Detachment”). On the other hand, Walter Chalaire, according to his R.A.F. service record, went to Stamford, but was not included in the Skelton-Vaughn list. On Chalaire, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Walter Chalaire.

113  See Vaughn, War Flying in France, pp. 1–9, on training at Princeton.

114  Regarding the first Oxford detachment’s departure for Stamford, see “A History of the American Air Service in Great Britain,” p. 12 [14].

115  For Knud Sehested’s date of birth and occupation, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Knud Sehested; for his date of emigration to the US, see Ancestry.com, 1920 United States Federal Census, record for Knud Sehested; for his employment in Denmark and study in Glasgow, see Holbek, “Knud Sehested.” Parr’s letter of February 29, 1918, remarks that Knud had worked at the Glasgow shipbuilding firm Alexander Stephens.

116 Wikipedia, “Grantham.”

117  See the first three chapters of Springs, Letters from a War Bird, which concern Springs’s time at Princeton, on the Carmania, and at Oxford.

118  Wikipedia, “Sir Herbert Samuel Leon, 1st Baronet.”

119  See “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917]” and “Ground School Graduations [for September 1, 1917].”

120 See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Robert Thomas Palmer; “Ground School Graduations [for September 1, 1917]”; and “Roster of Second Detachment.”

121 Wikipedia, “St Wulfram’s Church, Grantham.”

122  Wikipedia, “Royal Aircraft Factory SE5.”

123  On Wheeler, see Haverford College, Record of the Class of 1910, p. 37. On Ritter see “Who was Roland Hammond Ritter?” On their ground school, see “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

124  Wheeler, “Aerial Gunnery.” Published as a four-page Bulletin of the Intelligence Section, Training Department on January 8, 1918, Wheeler’s report gives an overview of the curriculum, equipment, and life in the camp; it was apparently completed by December 10, 1917.

125 For Mudge’s full name, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Dudley Hersey Mudge. For ground school graduation date, see “Ground School Graduations [for September 1, 1917].”

126 On Herbert, see Supreme Court of Ohio, “Thomas John Herbert.” and “Ground School Graduations [for September 1, 1917].”

127 See “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].” See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Charles C Fleet, for his birthplace.

128  Gilbert, The First World War, pp. 375–76.

129  For Dwyer’s date of birth and military record, see Ohio, Adjutant General’s Dept., The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, World War, 1917–1918, vol. 5, p. 4581. For his National Guard service, see “Many Volunteer Aviators.” For his accompanying cadets to Europe, see “First American Fliers reach England,” p. 10; and Hadley, “Foreign Aviation Detachments: June–December 1917,” p. 2 [284]. Hadley (loc. cit.) writes: “On July 27, 1917, Lieutenant Dwyer was ordered to Fort Wood, New York, to assume command of a detachment of 57 flying cadets and to proceed in command of this detachment to Hoboken to proceed overseas by the first available transportation.” Hadley appears to be alone in giving the number of cadets as 57; perhaps he erred; perhaps four men dropped out before sailing. Dwyer himself (“Report on Air Service Flying Training in England”) gives the number 53, and there are 53 men listed in alphabetical order after Dwyer’s name on the ship’s manifest (see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Aurania, p. 4, which also provides the date of their arrival at Liverpool). Sater, in “The First and Second Oxford Detachments,” gives the number 53 along with a group photo of most of the men, including Dwyer, and names both those pictured and those members of the detachment absent from the photo. On Dwyer’s joining the 1st Reserve Aero Squadron, see “26th Aero Squadron (Formerly 1st Reserve Aero Squadron)” p3 [p. 13]; on his departure for/reassignment to London, see the same, p. 6 [p. 16], and Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 36. For his full name and university degree, see Columbia University in the City of New York, Catalogue and General Announcement 1911–1912, p. 408. For his parentage, see Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Geoffrey Dwyer. On his English schooling see Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census, record for Geoffrey Dwyer; and Cookson, The Malvern Register 1865–1904, p. 518. Quotation from Rebecca Cameron, Training to Fly, p. 145.

130  Chadwick-Collins, Address Book of Living Alumnae and Former Students of Bryn Mawr College 1930, p. 65; “News from the Campus,” p. 70; “Personal and Social.”

131  “Miss Helen Henderson Weds.”

132  Her diploma has been handed down in the family and is currently in my possession.

133  For Hibbard’s date of birth (July 30, 1893) and attendance at Marlborough, see “Stephen Hibbard.” His appointment as a temporary 2nd lieutenant in the infantry is announced in “Infantry”; his move from the Royal Fusiliers to the Machine Gun Corps in “Regular Forces” [1916]; his appointment as an assistant instructor in “Regular Forces” [1917]; his promotion to instructor in “Regular Forces” [1918], p. 3697.

134  Wikipedia, “RAF Northolt.”

135  See Leach, “Stoke Rochford Hall.”

136  Grider and Jacobs, Marse John Goes to War, p. 74. Parr’s fellow cadet, Kent Curtis, however, in his novel, The Tired Captains, published in 1928, refers to it as Stoke Rochford (see pp. 126 and 131).

137  “Le Méridien Piccadilly.”

138  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for William Ernest B. Holland.

139  For Rorison’s full name and engineering degree, see Crenshaw, ed., Directory of Living Alumni of the University of Virginia, p. 141; in most records, he is listed as “John Chadbourn Rorison” or simply “John C. Rorison.”

140  For Rorison’s graduation from ground school, see “Ground School Graduations [for September 1, 1917].” For a chronology of his service, see Doyle, “War Birds Pictorial,” p. 33.

141  On the squadrons at Northolt, see 609 (West Riding) Archives, “Northolt.”

142  Parr’s R.F.C. Training Transfer Card includes the signature “Harold O’Malley, Major Commanding No. 2 T. Squadron 18 Wing.” His full name is provided by Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Harold MacDonnell O’Malley.

143  Wikipedia, “Farman MF.11.”

144  There are photos of Watt’s plane at Denis, “Escadrille MF 44 – F44 – AR44 – BR44”; there appear to be some differences between Watt’s M.F. 11 and the one in Parr’s photos which might be accounted for by a new paint job. Or they could be different airplanes.

145  Wikipedia, “Selfridges” and “Wanamaker’s.”

146  Wikipedia, “Chu Chin Chow.”

147  See Masefield, “A Giant—and its Ghost”; Alexander, “Northolt’s Giant”; and Bruce, British Aeroplanes 1914–18, pp. 287–89.

148  There is some confusion regarding her first name, but in presumably reliable legal documents it is “Amne.” See the images of the original documents at Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Anne [sic; sc. Amne; the name has been mistranscribed in the Ancestry.com database] L Grafflin (1881) and Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Amne Landstreet Grafflin.

149  See “Obituary [for] George W. Grafflin.” For the date of Amne Grafflin’s marriage, see Gibbons, Vital Records, p. 15. On Vrooman, see Phillips, “A War on Philadelphia’s Slums,” p. 47, and Creel and Slavens, Men Who are Making Kansas City, p. 157.

150 Wikipedia, “Ruskin College.”

151  See, for example, Vrooman, “The Servant Question in Social Evolution.”

152 “The Ruskin Hall Movement.”

153  Wikipedia, “Trenton, Missouri.”

154 “Mrs. Vrooman Seeks Divorce.”

155  “Divorce for Mrs. Vrooman.”

156  Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Anne L. Greffin [sic; sc. Amne L. Grafflin] shows her living in Baltimore. She appears on the passengers’ list of the Minneapolis, docking in London on January 18, 1912 (see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Amrs [sic] Grafflin). The foundation stone inscription is reproduced at Jenkins, “Inscriptions: Former Ruskin College Building.”

157 See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Annie [sic] L Grafflin (1919).

158  “Rodin at the V&A.”

159  See Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Frank B King for his profession, and Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Frank B King [1910] for his having retired.

160  Science Museum, “Museum History: A Brief History of the Science Museum.”

161   For Wilson’s date of birth and date of joining the CEF, see Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Bishop Arlington Wilson. For his time spent in U.S., see Ancestry.com, Border Crossings: From Canada to U.S., 1895–1956, record for Bishop A Wilson (Havre, June 4, 1936).

162  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Bishop Arlington Wilson.

163  See Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield, entry for Wilson on May 7, 1917, and Wikipedia, “Carl Menckhoff.”

164  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Bishop Arlington Wilson.

165  Wikipedia, “Centennial Exhibition.”

166  See Springs, Letters From a War Bird, passim.

167  Wikipedia, “The Thin Red Line (Battle of Balaclava).”

168  See Van Dyke, “The Name of France,” in The Outlook and also in The Red Flower, where it is followed by a note: “The Hague, September, 1916”; and Finley, “Every Man’s Land.” On The Outlook, see Wikipedia, “The Outlook (New York).”

169  For Matthiessen’s place of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Conrad Henry Matthiessen Jr. [1921]. For his family’s New York residence, see Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Conrad H Matthiessen Jr.

170  See Lucas, Walker, and Way, The Yale Banner and Potpourri, p. 462.

171 Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Conral [sic] Henry Matthiessen Jr.; “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

172 Matthiessen’s name appears on the “Roster of Second Detachment.”

173  “Royal Aero Club Aviator’s Certificate.”

174  Bujak, Reckless Fellows, p. 51.

175  Wikipedia, “SPAD S.VII” and “SPAD S.XIII”; Fitzsimons, ed., Warplanes and Air Battles of World War I, pp. 58–59,

176  Wikipedia, “Sopwith Dolphin.”

177  For Gaines’s birth date (August 11, 1884), see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Belding Gaines Jr. For Gaines’s Princeton degree, see Princeton University, General Catalogue of Princeton University 1746–1906, p. 368.

178  See Cooper, “Albert B. Gaines, Jr.,” regarding his early interest in flying and his pilot’s license. On the Governors Island Training Corps, see Freeman, “Abandoned and Little-Known Air Fields New York City, Brooklyn”; on Gaines’s membership in the Governors Island Training Corps, see “The Early Birds of Aviation Monument.”

179  On Gaines’s commission, see Cooper, “Albert B. Gaines, Jr.” Cooper’s source indicates that Gaines went overseas in 1918. However, Hadley’s account in Gorrell’s History (“Foreign Aviation Detachments: June–December 1917”) p. 2 [284], includes him among those preparing to depart for France under the command of Donald G. Frost in August of 1917. See also the obituary for Gaines (“Albert Belding Gaines, Jr.”) in the Princeton Alumni Weekly which reports his having been ordered to England in August 1917 and doing advanced training at London Colney.

180  See Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Albert Belding Gaines.

181  Wikipedia, “Bristol F.2 Fighter.”

182  Wikipedia, “Sopwith Camel.”

183  Wikipedia, “Sopwith Pup.”

184  Wikipedia, “Hotels in London.”

185  Veiller, The Thirteenth Chair, p. [3].

186  Brown Shipley, “History: Historical Timeline of Brown Shipley.”

187  Morris, The German Air Raids on Great Britain 1914–1918, p. 223, indicates in passing that No. 35 TS was at Northolt in 1917. On No. 86, see Hughes and Clark, “RFC Wye” and Barass, “No 86 – 90 Squadron Histories.”

188  The Norman, Remington Co., Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1920.

189  Wikipedia, “Avro” and “Avro 504.”

190  On Brown’s prep school attendance, see Benson, Saint Mark’s School in the War against Germany, p. 41. On his Princeton degree, see Princeton University, Catalogue of Princeton University One Hundred and Seventy-First Year 1917–1918, p. 453. See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Charles Edward Brown Jr., for his home address (Lake Forest, Illinois) at this period and for his birth date and place.

191  Charles Edward Brown’s name is missing from “Roster of Second Detachment,” “Roster from Clayton Knight,” and “Roster of the Detachments Whose Story is Told in War Birds”; he appears only in the list of “Casuals” (p.408) in Sloan’s Wings of Honor. However, his attendance at the Princeton Aviation School and Princeton ground school are well attested (The Princeton Bric-a-Brac 1919, p. 86; “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917]”; and Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments, p. 131). Benson, ed., Saint Mark’s School in the War against Germany, p. 41, writes of Brown: “Sailed for England Sept. 15 as a Cadet in the Aviation Section, S.E.R.C. Trained with the R.A.F., England, (attached), from Oct. 1 to July 1, 1918.” (September 15 is cited by Hadley, “Foreign Aviation Detachments: June–December 1917,” p. 3, as the Carmania’s departure date, although from Parr’s pre-departure letters, it is clear they did not leave until the 17th or 18th.) Also in favor of Brown’s having been a member of the second Oxford (“Italian”) detachment is a remark in War Birds (entry for November 17, 1917): “Cal, Curtis, Brown, Fry and I are ordered to Thetford to learn to fly at last. This is the final bust-up of the Italian Detachment.” It is perhaps worth noting that the name Brown as used in War Birds refers to two different men: Charles Edward Brown and, later in the work, Edward Cecil Brown, an English R.A.F. officer of 84 squadron.

192  See “Y.M.C.A. Hut is Opened” and Taft, Service with Fighting Men, vol. 2, p. 80.

193  For his profession and date of marriage, see Ancestry.com and Genealogical Research Library, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1801–1928, record for Reuben Alex McLelland.

194  On Mr. McLelland’s profession, see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Reuben A Mc Lelland [sic] (Liverpool, Sept. 11, 1916, Finland). On Isabelle (Lulu Belle) McLelland and their London hospitality, see Crawford, The MacPhersons and Magees, p. 96. London residence is provided by Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Reuben A McLelland (Liverpool, November 10, 1920, Empress of France).

195  See Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, records for Grace H [sic], Jean, and Mary S [sic] Mclelland [sic]. The date of birth (July 22, 1899) given for Mary Charlotte is probably in error; her birth record gives July 10, 1899; see Ancestry.com, Ontario, Canada Births, 1869–1913, record for Mary Charlotte McLelland. See Ancestry.com England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Helen G McLelland, which indicates she married Henry B. Ransom in the first quarter of 1917.

196 For Maloney’s date and place of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Clarance [sic] Bernard Maloney. For his undergraduate degree year, see “Alumni Notes,” The M.A.C. Record, p. 10. Columbia University, Directory of Officers and Students 1922–1923, p. 247, indicates the degree was a B.S. and records his M.S. from Florida. For his employment, see Newell, “Report of the Plant Commissioner,” p. 114. For his enlistment date, see An Honor Roll: Containing a Pictorial Record of the War Service of the Men and Women of Kalamazoo County, 1917–1918–1919, p. 146.

197  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for C. B. Maloney and record for G. S. Wheeler. I have not found an R.A.F. service record for Fleet.

198 On Harold Ainsworth (October 12, 1894–December 19, 1917) see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Harold Ainsworth; “Ground School Graduations [for July 21, 1917, and July 28, 1917]”; Swarthmore College, The Register of Swarthmore College . . . 1862–1920, p. 99; Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments,” p. 130; and Dwyer, “Report on Air Service Flying Training in England,” p. 5 (“Casualties under training”).

199  Parr’s second instructor was probably Bernard McEntegart (1891–1954); see Barrass, “Air Vice-Marshal B McEntegart,” and The Milk Lady at New Park Farm, p. 6 (photo). I have not been able to identify “Lt. Pigott” among the many men of that name (various spellings) in the R.F.C./R.A.F. Springs, in diary entries for mid-January 1917, also mentions this instructor (Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 77).

200  Parr’s R.F.C. Training Transfer Card includes the signature “G. R. Elliott,” and the designation “Major, O.C. 56 T Sqdn.” Gordon Roy Elliott’s R.A.F. service record confirms that this was his status at this time; see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Gordon Roy Elliott.

201  See “Ruthless Rhymes [and] Limericks” and Thorburn, “Ragtime for Yuletide.”

202  Information on Mary Catherine Diggs is based on unpublished family papers. On Miller, see Kelly, Outdoor Sculpture in Baltimore, pp. 223–24.

203 See Remington, Caroline P., compiler, Baltimore Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1915, p. 287, and The Norman, Remington Co., Baltimore Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1920, p. 272. That Montgomery Johns was called “Jack” is substantiated by the caption to a photo at Artsling, “Slingluff Family Tree,” record for Montgomery Johns Slingluff.

204  See the entry for Slingluff in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

205  See Cornell Maryland Club membership list in The Cornellian, vol. 45, p. 352.

206  The Wikipedia article, “Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps” states that “the Wilson administration set up a production plan to develop a force of 6,000 pursuit planes; 3,000 observation craft; and 2,000 bombers.” The Liberty Engine was one of the few bright spots in military aircraft development in World War I; production of actual planes lagged far behind the plan.

207  Wikipedia, “Liberty L–12.”

208  “Aviators Will Get Full Training Here. . . .”

209  On Wipperman, see The Cornellian, vol.45, p. 337. Sources differ in the spelling of his middle name.

210  For Mary Spicer Hooper’s year of birth, see Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Mary S Hooper; for her date of death and full name, see [Obituary for Mary Spicer Hooper].

211  On Welsh and Hendrickson, see the Cornell Maryland Club membership list in The Cornellian, vol. 44, p. 352.

212  For Paskill’s date and place of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Reuben Lee Paskill. Hastings High School Alumni Association, “In Memoriam” [1919], indicates he graduated from that school in 1911. On his graduation from ground school, see “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

213  For Paskill’s profession see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Reuben Lee Paskill; the Virginia State Highway Commission, Annual report, p. 108; and The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Reuben Lee Paskill. The latter, in a summary of Paskill’s “occupation in civil life,” indicates he had been a student at Chicago’s Armour Institute of Technology and subsequently a civil engineer for the Virginia State Highway Commission. Among the announcements in the February 10, 1912, “News Items Gathered from All Quarters,” there is a reference to an R. L. Paskill under contract as a catcher for the Springfield Club of the Ohio League. A “Sport’s Page Index, 1915–1918” cites the headline “Armour Ball Player Downs First Plane” and summarizes the article: “Ruben [sic] Paskill, former 1st baseman for the Chicago Armour Institute Team, downed his first enemy plane in France, 7/4/18.”

214  Clarence Fry’s biographer notes that he “was successively a member of the Twelfth, Seventy-fourth and Fifty-sixth Squadrons” (all training squadrons at the times Fry was with them). See “Lieutenant Clarence Horne Fry, R.F.C.,” p. 158.

215  Barrass, “No 71 – 75 Squadron Histories.”

216  Callahan was posted to No. 56 Training Squadron on December 16, 1917; see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Lawrence K. Callahan. The diary entry for January 1, 1918, in War Birds notes that “we have been posted to London Colney.” Springs’s diary for January 13, 1918, reads: “Go out to London Colney and report. . . . Grider and Callahan here”; see Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 77. And see Parr’s letter of January 14, 1918.

217 For Read’s date and place of birth, see the entry for him in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919. See The Johns Hopkins University, Preliminary Register of the Johns Hopkins University 1913–14, p. 69, and “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

218  On Rose Lindsay Hopkins Harvey and F. Barton Harvey see Cowan, “Harvey Family Collection.” For Barton Harvey’s military service, see the entry for him in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

219  See Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Helen C. Woods, and “Alumni Notes” in The Johns Hopkins University Alumni Magazine, p. 178.

220 Wikipedia, “Arthur Guy Empey.”

221  Wikipedia, “Mr. Britling Sees It Through.”

222  Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Helen G McLelland.

223  See Eastbourne College Roll of War Service 1914–1918, p. 46; “Special Reserve of Officers,” Supplement to the The London Gazette, No. 29626, p. 6044, on his captaincy; and “Special Reserve of Officers,” Supplement to the The London Gazette, No. 30347, on his being placed on the retired list.

224  On Coffman’s medical degree, see Henry W. Wilson, “Report of the Registrar,” p. 370; on his return to Richmond, see “Milton Buell Coffman, M.D.,” Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography, p. 73.

225  See “Recently Elected Members,” p. 545.

226  See the wedding announcement for Coffman in “General News,” p. 1008. See also Ancestry.com, British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914–1920, record for M. B. Coffman, which indicates he was a lieutenant attached to the RAMC (with an address of “Army Hdqrs Washington USA”); a “qualifying date” of October 18, 1917, is noted.

227  Alice Dorothea Goodwin, born September 18, 1891, was closer in age to Jean’s married sister, Helen; Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Dorothea Goodwin, provides her date of birth. Her family’s home in Kingston on Alice Street, like that of the McLellands on Earl Street, was near Queen’s University; see entries for the families in Kingston City Directory from July, 1917, to July, 1918. She apparently travelled to England with Mr. McLelland and Helen in late 1915; see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Alice D. Goodwin (arriving at Liverpool December 26, 1915, on the Philadelphia); the McLellands’ names appear on the next page of this list of first class passengers.

228  Wikipedia, “Royal Over-Seas League.”

229  On Pamela see Anonymous or unattributed, “Gossip from the Stage.”

230  See Wikipedia, “Frederick F. Reese.”

231  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated, letter of September 8, 1917, to his mother.

232  I have not been able to identify Lieutenant Raynor; he appears in a photo that Parr captioned “R.F.C. Huns & Lt. Raynor, Avro.”

233  Thomas Cushman “Cush” Nathan is mentioned in entries for January 24, February 12 and 15, and March 12, 20, 22, and 24, 1918, in War Birds. Nathan appears in the picture of the first Oxford detachment on p. 130 of Sater’s article. See also the brief biography of him on p. 100 of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Alumni Association, War Records Committee, Technology’s War Record.

234  John L. Cameron, “John Miller Turpin Finney,” p. 329.

235  Base Hospital 18 Association, History of Base Hospital No. 18, pp. 10–15.

236  “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917]” (where Coleman’s first name is given as “Delvitt”).

237  See Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Dewitt B Coleman [sic] and 1910 United States Federal Census, record for De Witt T Coleman [sic]; Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Charles C Fleet, and Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Charles C Fleet.

238  Parr’s list and his album of negatives along with some prints are in my possession. The list covers approximately half of his photos/negatives. Subjects of most of the remaining photos have been identified by context and, in a few cases, by annotations on the backs of prints.

239  See Rugby School, Memorials of Rugbeians who fell in the Great War, vol. 7, p. 24.

240  After Parr’s Pilot’s Flying Log Book entry for March 4, 1918, and his totalling up of hours, there appears the signature “W. J. Cairnes Capt.” Cairnes’s R.A.F. officer’s service record indicates he was assigned as an instructor at No. 56 Training Squadron on September 27, 1917; see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for W. J. Cairnes. See The Aerodrome, “William Cairnes,” on his record with No. 19 Squadron and his date of birth (June 7, 1896). Some sources give his birth year as 1898; however, the entry for him on p. 24 of vol. 7 of Rugby School, Memorials of Rugbeians who fell in·the Great War supports the date of 1896. The Memorials entry indicates that he entered the military in 1914 directly from Rugby and did not, as the Aerodrome entry suggests, study at Cambridge.

241  See Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Mary Henderson.

242  See “Charles Snowden Piggott, Class of 1911.”

243 Tilton, “Charles Snowden Piggot, June 5, 1892–July 6, 1973.”

244  For Edlund’s birth year, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Sidney W Edlund. Cornell University, Cornell Alumni Directory, p. 95, gives his class and major. On his involvement in track, see “Runners in Annual Meet with Michigan.”

245  See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Sidney W Edlund and Ancestry.com, Pennsylvania Veterans Burial Cards, 1777–1999, record for Sidney Edlund, which provides information on his military service.

246  See Harley, “Roll of Honour, Sussex, Eastbourne Central Military Hospital War Memorial”; Bowen, Knaack, and Fravel, “Resolutions,” p. 257; and Dwyer’s list of training casualties on p. 5 of his “Report on Air Service Flying Training in England.”

247  For Garver’s date of birth and occupation, see Ancestry.com, World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Roy Olin Garver. For his university attendance, Cruikshanks, “DC Alpha George Washington Univ.” See also “Obituary of Roy O. Garver.”

248  Wikipedia, “German Strategic Bombing during World War I.”

249  See Josephfearon20, “Fearon,” record for Marian Ellen Little; also Ancestry.com, 1891 England Census, record for Marian M. Whiting.

250  See Steenis-Kruseman, “Whiting, Marian Muriel.” Information also taken from [Richard Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester, Volume II, pp. 155 and 181.

251  Marian Muriel Whiting, “Reminiscences. . . .”

252  The passenger lists for the Merion (Philadelphia to Liverpool in May 1912) and the Prinz Oskar (Hamburg to Philadelphia in August 1912) include Virginia Woollen’s name immediately preceded by Mary Hooper and followed by Sally Lucas Jean, all designated as from Baltimore. See Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Virginia Woollen (Liverpool, May 30, 1912, Merion); Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Hamburg Passenger Lists, 1850–1934, record for Virginia Woollen (departing Hamburg August 8, 1912, on the Prinz Oskar); and Ancestry.com, Philadelphia Passenger Lists, 1800–1948, record for Virginia Woollen (August 20, 1912, Prinz Oskar).

253  See Ancestry.com, New York, Passenger Lists, 1820–1957, record for Emmiel [sic] Whiting for her arrival in New York in October 1913. I have also had the good fortune to be able to consult, courtesy of Joseph Fearon, Muriel Whiting’s account of this journey. She initially intended simply to visit her Norway acquaintances in their hometown of Baltimore. Having received an invitation to visit old friends from her childhood stay in China however, she set out across the United States and the Pacific to Hong Kong and Canton; she arrived back in London in the spring of 1914.

254  See Ancestry.com, 1871 England Census, record for William Hy Whiting; Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census, record for William H Whiting; and Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census, record for William Henry Whiting. A more detailed account of his professional career through 1910, which included two years (1895–1897) as Chief Constructor at H. M. Dockyard in Hong Kong, is provided by his application for membership in the Institution of Civil Engineers; see Ancestry.com, UK, Civil Engineer Records, 1820–1930, record for William Henry Whiting.

255 [King’s Birthday Honours], Supplement to The London Gazette of June 19, 1914, p. 4877.

256  See A. E. L. Davis, “Madeline Whiting.”

257  See Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census, record for William H Whiting, which lists “Ralph O.” as the youngest child.

258  See The Cornellian, vol. 45, p. 279.

259 On Miller’s monument see Kelly, Outdoor Sculpture in Baltimore, pp. 223–24, and The Smithsonian Institution, “Confederate Women’s Monument, (sculpture).”

260  See Wikipedia, “Airco.”

261  See TheLongTone, “Lucien Chauvière,” and Bob Gardner’s contribution to the discussion thread “Integral vs. Integrale.”

262  Information on Arthur Richmond Taber can be found in Seymour, ed., Memorial Volume of the American Field Service in France, pp. 229–30 and subsequent unnumbered page with picture and text. “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917]” gives the names of Taber’s class at Princeton ground school. Taber, Arthur Richmond Taber: A Memorial Record, p. 63, documents Taber’s flying experience prior to ground school; pp. 78–79 and passim indicate that Taber was a member of the second Oxford detachment; see p. 89 for Taber’s letter of November 18, 1917, in which he recounts being chosen for Stamford.

263   See Wertheimer, ed., The Twelfth General Catalogue of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity, p. 803, for Vassar’s year of graduation; Columbia University in the City of New York, Catalogue 1912–1913, p. 84 [second pagination], for his major; and Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Harold W Vassar, for his professional activity in 1917.

264  See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Harold W Vassar, regarding his acceptance by the Signal Corps; “Ground School Graduations [for July 21, 1917 and July 28, 1917]”; and Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments,” p. 130.

265  Deetjen, Diary.

266  This passage from Barksdale’s diary is quoted on p. 347 of Cubbison, “‘His Hand on the Stick, His Wings on His Chest.’” On University of Toronto alumnus and R.F.C. lieutenant Douglas Quirk Ellis (born Sept. 13, 1896), see University of Toronto, University of Toronto Roll of Service 1914–1918, p. 43. Ellis received his Royal Aero Club certificate on December 19, 1917, at Ruislip, flying a Maurice Farman; a note is added to the certificate “Accidentally killed in Herts. 10th Feb. 1918”; however these certificates in my experience are prone to error in details. See Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Douglas Quirk Ellis.

267  See “A Case of Medical Intolerance.”

268  Stanford University, Twenty-Fifth Annual Register 1915–1916, p. 37.

269  See the entry for Williams in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

270  See Watson, “Maryland Winters” and Crowell, America’s Munitions 1917–1918, p. 477.

271  See Grasty, “Our Officers’ Club in London Assured” and British Library of Political and Economic Science, “Brittain, Sir Harry Ernest, 1873–1974, Knight, MP and journalist.”

272  Wikipedia, “Rosslyn Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss.”

273  See Hoffman, “Alpha Delta—Goucher College.” In a letter that Parr wrote to his father from ground school on August 2, 1918, he remarks: “This afternoon . . . I went over to Oxly where KAT the girls fraternity that I know & liked the girls in the Goucher chapter (Mary Hoffman, Lou Pennington) gave a card party . . . “ (Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated).

274  See The Norman, Remington Co., Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1920, p. 359.

275  On Charles Reid Johnson see The Cornellian, vol. 45, pp. 151 and 352. On his military career during World War I, see the entry for him in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War.

276  On Charles Reid Johnson’s wedding, see “Society” [The marriage of Miss Mildred Ijams].

277  On Welsh’s degree, see Cornell University, Catalogue Number 1913–1914, p. 153 (841). For his date and place of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Russell Dutton Welsh.

278  On Nathan Rogers Butler, Jr., see The Cornellian, vol. 43, pp. 81 and 267.

279  On Alfred’s Stillman’s medical degree, see Columbia University in the City of New York, Catalogue 1915–16, p. 33. On his wartime service, see Mead, Harvard’s Military Record in the World War, p. 909. On Base Hospital No. 15, see Ford, Administration American Expeditionary Forces, ch. 24.

280  Ruth Stillman’s 1916 passport application indicates she was initially to be working with war orphans; see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Ruth Stillman (1916). That she subsequently worked at American Red Cross Hospital No. 1 (Neuilly, Paris) is documented by an album kept by her and now in the archives of Miss Porter’s School; several pages of the album were reproduced for the exhibit “Hotchkiss and the Great War 1914–1918”; see the “Gallery” tab and web link at The Hotchkiss School, “Hotchkiss and the Great War 1914–1918.” On Lisa Stillman’s war work, see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Lisa Stillman (1917). This passport of Lisa’s as well as Ruth’s from 1917 have amendments permitting them to travel to England to visit their wounded brother.

281  Wikipedia, “Elstree” and “Aldenham Reservoir.”

282  Wikipedia, “William Sims.”

283  Wikipedia, “East India Club.”

284  On his education, medical and military career see “Maurice Henry Whiting, OBE, MB, BChir, FRCS” [obituary] and “Maurice Henry Whiting.” For his marriage, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Maurice H. Whiting.

285  On her marriage, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Mary K. Whiting. On Herman de Quetteville Robin, see Scott Wilson, “A Letter of Introduction.”

286 “William Robert Gerald Whiting.”

287 Wikipedia, “Armstrong Whitworth.”

288 Wikipedia, “Swan Hunter.”

289 Wikipedia, “RMS Mauretania (1906).”

290  Wikipedia, “Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company.”

291  Wikipedia, “Edward Courtney Boyle.”

292  See Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census, record for Francis John Culley.

293  See Binns et al., “10. Olive Mary Culley 1895.”

294  Wikipedia, “St. Pancras Renaissance London Hotel.”

295  For his date of birth, see Free BMD, England & Wales, Free BMD Birth Index: 1837–1915, record for William Joseph Luke. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for William Joseph Luke. For his professional activities and places of residence, see Ancestry.com, 1891 England Census, record for William J Luke; and Ancestry.com, 1901 Scotland Census, record for William J Luke.

296  See “The Lusitania: Full-Power Trials, Cruise round Ireland” and Ancestry.com, New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957, record for William Joseph Luke (September 14, 1907, Lusitania).

297  Wikipedia, “John Brown & Company.”

298  See Cornell University, Office of the Dean of the University Faculty, “George Robert McDermott, Professor of Naval Architecture, 1860–May 26, 1937.” This memorial statement has McDermott working at the “Clydebank Shipbuilding and Engineering Company.” The Clydebank Engineering and Shipbuilding Company, the successor to J & G Thompson, existed only briefly (and after McDermott’s departure for Cornell) from 1897 to 1899, when it was taken over by John Brown and Company. See Grace’s Guide, “Clydebank Engineering and Shipbuilding Co.”

299  Grace’s Guide, “Alexander Stephen and Sons.”

300  See Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1880 United States Federal Census, record for William Luke.

301   See University of Glasgow, “Archibald Denny 1st Baronet.”

302  Wikipedia, “SS City of Paris (1888).”

303  On O’Brien, see Grech, “O’Brien, Patrick Alva MC.”

304  See entry for Arthur Fenelon Slingluff in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

305  On James O. Bates’s involvement in the firm of Hennegan & Bates, see the entry for Hennegan & Bates on p. 317 of “Baltimore: Monument City Holds Some of the Oldest Jewelry Firms in the Country.”

306  See Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Julia O Bates, which also lists at the same address “Chas. H. Millikin” and “M. B. Millikin,” both married 4 years. See The Norman, Remington Co., Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1920, p. 176, which lists “Millikin, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Howard (Mattie H. Bates).” See p. 317 of “Baltimore: Monument City Holds Some of the Oldest Jewelry Firms in the Country” regarding Charles Howard Millikin and Hennegan & Bates.

307  William H. Millikin, father of Charles Howard Millikin, was born in about 1832 to James H. Millikin and Sarah A. Millikin; see Ancestry.com, 1850 United States Federal Census, record for household of Jas H Milliken [sic]. William’s brother, Peter Bryson Millikin (father of Bryson Carter Millikin) was born in about 1852; see Ancestry.com, 1870 United States Federal Census, record for Brison Millikin [sic]. See also Hall, Baltimore: Its History and its People, vol. 2, p. 249, regarding James H. and Sarah Millikin and their children.

308  See Ancestry.com, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708–1985, marriage record for Charles Warner Hurst.

309  The Stoniers’ residence in Golders Green is attested by Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census, record for George Alfred Stonier. On his position, see Great Britain, India Office, The India List and India Office List for 1905, p. 622. Ethel’s maiden name, date of birth, and parentage were provided by Richard Whiting to Joe Fearon, who then provided them to me (personal communication). On Walter Saise, see The Durham Mining Museum and its contributors, “Walter Saise, Dr.”

310  See Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Helen Henderson (Liverpool, May 15, 1914, Haverford).

311  Springs’s departure for Turnberry at this time is confirmed by an entry in his diary for February 15, 1918; see Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 90.

312  See the list of officers and cadets killed while training in England that constitutes p. 5 of Dwyer’s “Report on Air Service Flying Training in England.” War Birds, entry for January 12, 1918, tells of Springs’s and DeGarmo’s arrival at London Colney; DeGarmo’s death is related in the entry for February 16, 1918; see also Springs’s letter to his stepmother of February 26, 1918 (Letters of a War Bird, pp. 92–93).

313  See cablegrams 813–R, 821–R, 852–R, and 857–R.

314  See Obituary Record of Yale Graduates 1915–1920, p. 722.

315  See Robertson, British Military Aircraft Serials 1878–1987, regarding these Spad VII serial numbers.

316 Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census, record for Annie Maria Greville.

317  See Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Anna M Greville, and Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for George William Anderson.

318  Gilbert, The First World War: A Complete History, p. 406.

319  See the entry for Williams in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

320  See Cohen, “Hammitt Kennett Elliott Jr.” In 2012, this web page reproduced several obituaries, including one from the Philadelphia Inquirer, but has since dropped it; the spelling of the middle name is variously given as “Kennett” and “Kenneth.” See also Sheridan, History of Camden County in the Great War 1917–1918, pp. 27–28, which mentions Elliott’s having attended the “Princeton Flying School,” presumably the School of Military Aeronautics at Princeton. By October 1917 Aerial Age and the Air Service Journal had ceased listing ground school graduates, and I have thus not been able to confirm attendance or graduation date.

321  See entries for Knud and Steen Sehested at Krogsgaard, Anetræ for familien Krogsgaard og mange mange flere.

322  Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for B Carter Millikin [1918].

323  See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Bryson Carter Millikin [1922]; for details of Millikin’s work, see “World Need of Gospel Truths.”

324  Ira Jones, King of Air Fighters, pp. 166 and 168.

325  See “Training Squadron Locations.”

326  See cablegram 678–S (from Pershing to the Adjutant General dated March 4, 1918), paragraph 4A and cablegram 979–R (from McCain to Pershing dated March 25, 1918), paragraph 4.

327  See Baxter, “Monument at Craigengower” and Blairquhan Estate LTD, “Castle and Estate.”

328 The Aerodrome, “Lionel Rees” and Wikipedia, “Lionel Rees.”

329  On Hough, see “Michigan Men in Service: Roll of Honor,” p. 113. On Ortmayer, see “Orders for the Air Service,” p. 322, and “Dedication of the Memorial Tablets . . . Programme,” second page of list, column 1. On Velie, see Officers and Enlisted Men of the United States Navy Who Lost Their Lives . . . , p. 746. On Dealy, see Dealy, “Photographs from 1917–18,” and “Lt.Thomas Sydney Ough Dealy AFC - Accident Details?”

According to casualty cards available at the Royal Air Force Museum Story Vault (web site) Hough’s accident occurred on March 3, 1918; he died ten days later on March 13, 1918; Ortmayer and Dealy both crashed on March 7, 1918; Dealy died that day, Ortmayer the next; Velie (mistranscribed as “Velde”) crashed and died on March 8, 1918. (This last is substantiated by the March 8, 1918, entry in Kisssel’s diary.)

Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 194, concluded incorrectly that Dealy was Eugene Russell Wheatley. Rossano, editing Ingalls’s letters and diaries, incorrectly identified (note 200) Dealy as Velie. First-hand accounts of these air accidents provided in diaries by Springs (transcribed in Letters from a War Bird, p. 97), Kissel (Diary, entries for March 3–8, 1918), and Ingalls (transcribed in Hero of the Angry Sky, Chapter 3) differ from one another with respect to dates; Ingalls’s entry regarding Hough’s death on March 7, 1918, is particularly puzzling.

Just to round out the confusion surrounding the similar sounding names “Dealy” and “Velie,” Deetjen writes in his diary on March 28, 1918, “News came that Nathan was killed at Ayre. Also Andy Ortmeyer, and a rumor that Bill Nealy had gone west.” William Hamlin Neely, of the second Oxford detachment, died in 1962.

330  Ingalls, Hero of the Angry Sky, Chapter 3.

331  See Wikipedia, “Bristol M.1,” and Revell, Fighter Aces!, ch. 5.

332  See Bingham, An Explorer in the Air Service, p. 26.

333  See Ancestry.com, 1920 United States Federal Census, record for Sarah L. Mcqueen [sic].

334  R. L. Polk & Co., Baltimore, Maryland, City Directory, 1917, entry for Olive Redden, p. 1599.

335  Ancestry.com, U.S., Naturalization Records—Original Documents, 1795–1972 (World Archives Project), record for Cecelia Olive Redden.

336  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated (August 9 and August 12, 1917).

337  See the entry for Cecelia O. Redden in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

338  On Wellington School and its buildings, see Wikipedia, “Wellington School, Ayr.” On Vaughn’s residence, see his War Flying in France, p. 62.

339  See Canada Aviation and Space Museum, Ottawa, Image 4818: Spad VII A9142.

340  See Wikipedia, “Culzean Castle.”

341 See New York Times editorial and articles from February and March 1918, “Army Aviators’ Pay,” “Tight Proposed Cut in Aviators’ Pay,” and “Gives Extra Pay to Our Aviators.”

342  See the entry for Montgomery Johns Slingluff in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War.

343  On Slingluff’s marriage, see Society, ed., Baltimore Society Visiting List or Blue Book . . . 1921, p. 23.

344  See Stillman, “Children of Joseph Frederick Stillman and Eliza Schley.”

345  See Woodrow Wilson, “Our Utmost Sacrifice.”

346  Vaughn, War Flying in France, p. 64.

347  See Wikipedia, “James McCudden.”

348  Stratton’s R.A.F. service record indicates he was seriously injured in an “Aero Accident” on May 5, 1918, as a result of which he spent the remainder of the war in hospital and convalescing. Possibly the entry in War Birds refers to an additional, earlier accident, or perhaps liberties have been taken with the date. See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Lynn Lemuel Stratton.

349  On Wheelock, see Cornell University, Cornell Alumni Directory, p. 350; “Latest List of Aviation ‘Ground School’ Graduates”; and Sater, “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments,” p. 130.

350  See the entry for this date in Franks, The Jasta War Chronology. There are different versions of Büttner’s given names (“Heinrich,” “Karl Heinrich,” “Karl Heinrich Otto”), and I have not been able to identify him with sufficient certainty to supply birth and death dates. On Hervey, see Barton, “From the Archives”; and The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for H. E. Hervey. On Parker, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for G. A. Parker; Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for George Alec Parker; and Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for George Alec Parker.

351  Doyle, “War Birds Pictorial,” p. 39.

352  Vaughn, War Flying in France, p. 67.

353  See Grace’s Guide, “A Shipbuilding History.”

354  See Sorn Castle, “The McIntyre Family History.”

355  The R.A.F. service record of John Latta provides “Failford House, Nr. [= Near?] Mauchline, Ayrshire” as his home address and as the address of his father, “J. G. Latta.” See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for John Latta. On the location of Failford House, see Baird, “Failford House.”

356  See “Branch No. 44.”

357  Regarding their R.A.F. service, see the National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, records for James Douglas Latta and John Latta. Revell, in Chapter 3 of his biography of the Maxwell brothers (Fighter Aces!), notes that one of the Lattas was sharing a house in Ayr with Gerald Maxwell and others during this period; an e-mail from Revell confirms that this was James Douglas Latta.

358  See Beauclerk-Dewar, Burke’s Landed Gentry, pp. 891–92.

359  See Wikipedia, “Gerald Maxwell” and The Aerodrome, “Gerald Maxwell.”

360  Callender, War in an Open Cockpit, pp. 43–44.

361  See Grace’s Guide, “G. and J. Weir.”

362  See Grace’s Guide, “William Douglas Weir.”

363  The verso of the form nominating James Gilmore Latta for membership in The Institution of Mechanical Engineers provides a succinct professional history up to 1899. See Ancestry.com, UK, Mechanical Engineering Records, 1847–1930, record for James Gilmore Latta. Reader (The Weir Group, pp. 25 and 77) gives a brief account of Latta’s connection with G. & W. Weir, indicating that he remained a director until July of 1918. On his sons’ connection with the firm, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, records for James Douglas Latta and John Latta.

364 See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, records for Louis Ward Wheelock and Norman Kenneth Berry. There is a description of the crash in the War Birds entry for April 14 [sic], 1918, as well as one in Bogart Rogers’s letter of April 23, 1918.

365  See Doyle, “War Birds Pictorial,” p. 41.

366  See Beauclerk-Dewar, Burke’s Landed Gentry, pp. 891–2, and Sorn Castle, “The McIntyre Family History.”

367  Information taken from a Phi Theta graduate chapter dues notice to Parr dated May 14, 1918 (personal possession).

368  See Ancestry.com, 1901 Scotland Census, record for Helen M Kidston, and Ancestry.com, 1911 England Census, record for Helen Maud Kidston, for her age and places of residence. See “7 Southpark Terrace, Hillhead,” for the family’s residence there in 1909; Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for James Burns Kidston, indicates he was still living there when he died on October 30, 1925. See Pkidston, “Kidston PGK Feb 2013,” record for Margaret Hedderwick Kidston, for her approximate date of birth. For Agnes Annabel’s dates, see Vacca, “Annabel Kidston (1896–1981).” SeeAncestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Alice Maud Kidston, for the daughters’ full names.

369  Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1880 United States Federal Census, record for Nellie A. Botts.

370  Regarding Robert Blackie’s wives and children, see Moffatt-Aroha, “Moffatt/Blackie Family Tree,” record for Robert Blackie [1819–1869], which has a “Facts for Robert Blackie” attached. Also useful in determining relationships among Ellen Arthur Botts’s family is Rice, “Descendants of William Herndon,” particularly pp. 13 and 14.

371  See “Many Happy Couples.”

372  See “A New York Romance,” an article from November 1887 in a Newfoundland newspaper, which apparently took the story from the Brooklyn Eagle. See also “Romantic if True,” which retells the story in 1895 in a New Zealand paper.

373  See Rice, “Descendants of William Herndon,” pp. 13–14.

374  Ancestry.com, 1891 Scotland Census, record for Lucy H. Blackie.

375  See National Library of Scotland, “BLACKIE, John & Co printers and booksellers Glasgow.”

376  Grace’s Guide, “William Denny and Brothers”

377  Grace’s Guide, “Archibald Denny” and “William Denny and Brothers.”

378  Grace’s Guide, “William Denny and Brothers.”

379  Wikipedia, “William Froude.”

380  “Creel Escapes Injury in Airplane Accident.”

381  See Grace’s Guide, “D. and W. Henderson and Co.”

382  See Ourwalks, “Lympne Castle” and “Lympne Castle - Kent.” The quotation is taken from Vaughn, War Flying in France, p. 75 (Vaughan spells the name “Beechman”). The owner was Henry Beecham, brother of conductor Sir Thomas Beecham, and son of Sir Joseph Beecham, who had died in 1916.

383  See Wikipdedia, “RAF Lympne.”

384  On the S.E.5 and S.E.5a and the engines with which they were fitted, see Bruce, British Aeroplanes, 1914–18, pp. 445–57. There were significant problems obtaining reliable engines for the S.E.5a, and some of the planes were outfitted with engines that were known to be defective. Although Bruce supplies considerable information and lists serial numbers, I have not been able, from his information, to match specific planes with certainty to specific engines.

385  Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated.

386  See Ancestry.com, World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for John F Horner, and Ancestry.com, World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for John Franklin Horner.

387  See Hawkins234, “Hawkins Family Tree,” record for Wilfred Alexander Henderson. See also “Monument Details C09.”

388  Wikipedia, “David Henderson (British Army officer).”

389  For Fry’s date of death, see Dwyer’s list of training casualties on p. 5 of his “Report on Air Service Flying Training in England” (where Fry is erroneously listed as “Clifford H. Fry”); see also “Lieutenant Clarence Horne Fry R.F.C.,” p. 156. Fry’s death was recorded in U.S. papers dated May 11, 1918, which has sometimes been taken as his actual death date. If Springs was relying on newspaper accounts when editing War Birds, this may account for the fact that the War Birds entry of May 10, 1918, refers to Fry as “funnier than ever” in the present tense. The end of the entry of May 11, 1918, reads “Clarence Fry killed himself by stalling a Spad over there [London Colney].” However, in his letter home of May 7, 1918, Springs indicates that the death took place on May 4, 1918; see Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 122.

390  On the American Officers’ Inn, see Taft, Service with Fighting Men, vol. 2, pp. 78–79.

391  See Skelton, “1st Lieutenant George A. Vaughn, Jr.” and “Ground School Graduations [for August 25, 1917].”

392  War Birds, entry for March 26, 1918. See Vaughn’s own account, that of James H. Ackerman, and a photo of the “crack-up” in Vaughn’s War Flying in France, pp. 69–70 and 74.

393  C1861 was apparently later flown by the otherwise unidentified Lt. J. J. Palmer of 24 Squadron; see The Aerodrome, “Horace Barton.”

394  Wikipedia, “Brooklands” and Brooklands Museum Trust Ltd., “Aviation History - World War One.”

395  For Burwell’s date of birth (October 17, 1891), see the entry for him in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

396  For Hopper’s date of birth (February 11, 1892) and address (1515 Bolton St.), see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Daniel Cox Hopper Jr. For his parents’ and cousins’ addresses, see Remington, Baltimore Society Visiting List or Blue Book for the Season of 1915, p. 303.

397  Wikipedia, “Early Birds of Aviation.”

398  For his commission, see the entry for Burwell in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919; on his command of the detachment, see Hadley, “Foreign Aviation Detachments: June–December 1917,” p. 4.

399  See the entry for Burwell in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

400  Grinnell-Milne, Wind in the Wires, p. 16.

401  For Douglass’s full name and place and date of birth (April 1, 1894), see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Charles William Harold Douglass. On his career, see “Lieut. Douglass Wounded.”

402  The excerpted letter is on p. 76 of “War Materials from French Forests.” In it Douglass provides a brief narrative of his military career which makes it clear that he was in the same detachment going to Europe as Parr (“Many things have happened to me since leaving Mineola, the main one being that I’m here in England instead of Italy as I expected”).

403  On this play, see the Wikipedia article, “Maid of the Mountains.”

404  The first quotation comes from Mayo, That Damn Y, p. 350; the second from “Women Provide American Officers with Newest of ‘Home’ Places in London.”

405  See Wikipedia, “Yes, Uncle!”

406  On Winslow’s birthplace, see Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Paul S Winslow; on his ground school graduation see “Ground School Graduations [for July 21, 1917 and July 28, 1917].”

407  See Revell, “Paul Winslow.”

408  See Wikipedia, “Lafayette Flying Corps” and “94th Fighter Squadron.” For Alan Winslow’s age (born October 2, 1895), see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Alan Francis Winslow.

409  For his date of birth and education, see The Aerodrome, “Duerson Knight.” I should note that I initially identified “Knight” as Clayton Knight (1891–1969), who, among many other activities, provided the illustrations for War Birds. However, Clayton Knight was stationed at Stamford through mid-May, and then went to Thetford and Marske-by-the-Sea before he was posted to No. 206 Squadron in August of 1918; he was unlikely to be, as Parr says, “also going with us” as pilots to France in early May. See Kilduff, “Clayton Knight—Artist & Airman,” pp. 204–6. I am grateful to Peter Kilduff for bringing Duerson Knight to my attention.

410  “Ground School Graduations [for July 21, 1917 and July 28, 1917]” lists “D. Knight” as a July 28 graduate of the University of Illinois ground school. The caption to the picture on p. 130 of Sater’s “The First and Second American Oxford Detachments” similarly includes “D. Knight,” as does the manifest of the Aurania arriving in Liverpool on September 2, 1917 (see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Aurania arriving Liverpool September 2, 1917, p. 4).

411  On Knight’s assignments to 1 T.D.S. at Stamford, to 40 T.S. at Croydon, as a ferry pilot, and with No. 1 Squadron, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Duerson Knight. This record indicates he went to machine gun school at Grantham on November 3, 1917, but as he was a member of the first, not the second Oxford detachment, this seems odd, and suggests that the person writing up the record confused him with a member of the second detachment. The date for his assignment to No. 1 Squadron R.A.F. is taken from Skelton, “Becoming Operational,” p. 77.

412  Ritter’s R.A.F. service record indicates he was assigned to 40 T.S. at Croydon in early March; the next entry in this sketchy record is a note that he was injured on May 16, 1918. See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Roland H. Ritter.

413  Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 219, gives May 11, 1918, as the date of Ritter’s posting to No. 56 Squadron. Revell, High in the Empty Blue, p. 408, gives May 12, 1918.

414  See Scott Wilson, “A Letter of Introduction.”

415  On Piper and Goodspeed, see Arthur, Contact!, p. 204. The spelling of Goodspeed’s middle name varies among sources.

416  See Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Eugene L Wolfe (Liverpool, England, November 5, 1917, New York) for the list of the 15 aviator passengers.

417  See entry for Wolfe in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War and “Maryland Cornellians in the War.”

418  See the entry for Henderson in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, for his date of birth and place of residence as a young adult; see also Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Charles M Henderson, which gives the same address.

419  See p. 20 of the University of Maryland, Law School, Catalogue and Announcement 1913–1914 and the entry for Henderson in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War.

420  See “No 32 Squadron RFC/RAF 1918: A Brief History.” For the composition of IX Brigade in April 1918, see “RAF IX Brigade Order of Battle April 1918.”

421  On the role of IX Brigade, see Callender, War in an Open Cockpit, p. 57, note 3; on the composition of brigades and the role of IX Brigade, see McCluskey, “The Battle of Amiens and the Development of British Air-Land Battle, 1918–45,” pp. 232–33.

422  See Bruce, The S.E.5a, pp. 3–4; see also his “The S.E.5,” pp. 90 and 93. Robertson, British Military Aircraft Serial Numbers 1878–1987, indicates it was “Built by Air Navigation Co.”; I have not been able to resolve the discrepancy.

423  See mickdavis’s contribution of August 8, 2006, at “SE5a B170” regarding the delivery of B170.

424  The editors of Alvin Andrew Callender’s letters provide a list of No. 32 Squadron members from this period as Appendix 1; it includes Lieutenant H. C. Vizard. For Vizard’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Harold Charles Vizard; for his place of birth see Free BMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837–1915, record for Harold Charles Vizard. On his military career, see Ancestry.com, British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914–1920, record for Harold Charles Vizard, and The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for H. C. Vizard.

425  The editors of both Rogers and Callender’s letters provide maps showing the locations of No. 32 Squadron aerodromes (pp. [14] and 48 respectively). Photos of Beauvois as it is today and in 1918, including photos of the air field, are provided by 49 Squadron Association, “Beauvois, France 04 Aug 1918 – 30 Oct 1918.”

426  See “Beauvois, France 21 Jun 1918 – 14 Jul 1918.”

427  See the entry for William Henry Edmond de Vere Sheaffe Pery, 4th Earl of Limerick at Lundy, The Peerage. The eldest child, a daughter, lived only two days. The second daughter’s name is given there and elsewhere as “Victoria May Pery.” However, other documents, including her passport application from 1918 give the name (and signature) “Victoria Mary Pery.” See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Victoria Mary Perry [sic] Brady.

428  See “Lady Pery, Bride of James C. Brady.”

429  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for E W C G de V Viscount Glentworth.

430  See The Aerodrome, “Wilfrid Barratt Green” and Ancestry.com, British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914–1920, record for Wilfred [sic] Barratt Green.

431  See The Aerodrome, “Arthur Claydon.” For his date of emigration, see Ancestry.com, Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865–1935, record for Arthur Claydon.

432  See Scottish Military Research Group, “Balmaghie Parish Churchyard” and Ancestry.com, 1901 Scotland Census, record for John C Russell. His middle name is sometimes given as “Canaan,” but “Cannan,” his mother’s maiden name, is more likely correct.

433  See “Royal Engineers,” which indicates that as of August 23, 1914, Russell was a member of the Scottish Cable Signal Company, Scottish Command Signal Companies. See Barrass, “Air Commodore J C Russell,” regarding his initial appointment to the R.F.C. The record for John Canaan [sic] Russell at Ancestry.com, British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914–1920, indicates that he was at some point in “48 Sqdn RAF,” but I have not been able to determine when. I have been unable to find an R.A.F. service record for him at the National Archives (UK).

434  See “No 32 Squadron RFC/RAF 1918: A Brief History.”

435  See Tulane University, Jambalaya (1914), p. 32.

436  See Ancestry.com, Border Crossings: From U.S. to Canada, 1908–1935, record for Alvin A. Callender. On his citizenship, see also Callender, War in an Open Cockpit, p. xii.

437  See Callender’s letters in Chapter 1 of War in an Open Cockpit.

438  See Callender’s letters in War in an Open Cockpit of May 12, 1918 (where “Wimeraux” is presumably an alternate spelling for “Wimereux”), and May 19, 1918.

439  See Earl Rogers’s preface to Rogers, A Yankee Ace, and the letters, passim.

440  See “Schwab Placed in Full Control of Shipbuilding.”

441  For his dates of birth and death, see Ancestry.com, Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906–1944, record for George Henderson.

442  See Benson, ed., Saint Mark’s School, p. 41: “[Brown] Trained with the R.A.F., England, (attached), from Oct. 1 to July 1, 1918. Commissioned 1st Lieutenant in the A.S., U.S. Army, May 30, 1918. Trained further and awaited assignment from July 1 to Aug 7, and was then sent to A.S. Production Centre No. 2, Romorantin, France.”

443  On Herbert’s assignment to No. 56 Squadron, see entry for him in Ohio, Adjutant General’s Dept., The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, World War, 1917–1918; and Munsell, Air Service History, p. 39. On Read’s assignment to No. 60 Squadron, see the entry for him in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919; and Munsell, Air Service History, p. 46; as well as Scott, Sixty Squadron, R.A.F., p. 132. Parr may have thought Read was already posted to a squadron when he was, though perhaps in France, nonetheless still awaiting assignment at a pilots’ pool. On the location of the squadrons by date, see Townsend, “Aeroplane Squadron Locations during World War 1.”

444  Revell, High in the Empty Blue, p. 319.

445  Ibid (see also Chapter 6 of Revell, Fighter Aces!). I have unfortunately not been able to determine the current whereabouts of the diary.

446  See Bruce, “The De Havilland D.H.4”; and “RAF IX Brigade Order of Battle April 1918.”

447 “No 32 Squadron RFC/RAF 1918: A Brief History,” p. 2.

448  Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current record for Emma Strider gives October 1, 1881, as her date of birth. Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Emma T Striden [sic] suggests she and her family lived next door to Mr. King; both families continued to reside at the same addresses into the 1930s. See Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Emma T Strider; record for Frank B. King. On her social activity, see, for example, the penultimate paragraph of “News of Washington’s Club World.”

449  See Wikipedia, “Leslie Henson.”

450  See the article on Ellis in Shenk, Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania.

451  See The Aerodrome, “Lloyd Hamilton”; Mead, Harvard’s Military Record in the World War, p. 420; and “Roster of Second Detachment.”

452  See Joel, “The Cornell Widow,” which reproduces covers from a number of issues.

453  Wikipedia, “Lyman Abbott.”

454  See The Aerodrome, “William Cairnes” as well as Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for William Jameson Cairnes.

455  Craig, Germany, 1866–1945, pp. 393–94. A particularly vivid eye-witness account (with maps) of this period is provided by Harvey Cushing in Chapters 7 and 8 of his From a Surgeon’s Journal.

456  See The Aerodrome, “Walter Tyrrell.”

457  See Robertson, British Military Aircraft Serials 1878–1987.

458  See “No 32 Squadron RFC/RAF 1918: A brief history.”

459 See Robertson, British Military Aircraft Serials 1878–1987.

460  See Wikipedia, “Gouy-Saint-André” and Baring, R.F.C. H.Q. passim, and particularly pp. 138 and 271.

461  See Mickdavis’s posting from January 2, 2007, on the discussion thread “What does ASD mean?”

462  See Robertson, British Military Aircraft Serials 1878–1987, p. 47. This plane is elsewhere given the serial number 287/18; see Puglisi, “German Aircraft-Down in British Lines,” part 2, p. 282.

463  See Army War College (U.S.), Historical Section, The Aisne and Montdidier-Noyon Operations, p. 23: “Definite information as to the impending attack, including the exact date, was obtained by the French superior headquarters and communicated to the command prior to June 9, and the command was prepared to meet it.” Livesey’s Viking Atlas of World War I, p. 158: “But Foch and Pétain had been forewarned by deserters and aerial reconnaissance. . . .”

464  “No 32 Squadron RFC/RAF 1918: A Brief History.” Greater detail is provided by H. A. Jones, The War in the Air, vol. VI, pp. 400–11.

465  The Aerodrome, “Walter Tyrrell.”

466 For Caswell’s place of birth and his father’s profession, see Ancestry.com, 1901 England Census, record for Geo Fedk C Cassell [sic]. For his date of birth and his professional activity from 1901 until 1914, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for George Frederick Charles Caswell. Ancestry.com, UK Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for George J C Caswell [sic], documents arriving at Liverpool on the St. Louis in January 1917. A “George Caswell” appears among the non-resident members elected to the Aero Club of America in “The Aero Club of America: Club News,” published in September 1916. Caswell does not appear among the personnel listed at www.airwar1.org.uk, 32 Squadron 1918 RAF, but is in the list of “Pilots Assigned to No. 32 Squadron, R.A.F.” which forms Appendix I of the edition of Callender’s letters.

467  See “Regular Forces,” p. 6148.

468  In a letter written to his father from ground school in Ohio on July 10, 1918, Parr mentions “Marion Hopkins,” and I take this to be the Marion referred to here (Parr Hooper, Letters undated . . . dated).

469  See Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Marvin [sic] B Hopkins; entry for Marion Byrd Hopkins at Hopkins, Descendants of Gerard Hopkins of Anne Arundel Co.; and Page, “Frank Blackwell Mayer,” p. 74.

470  On Charles Reid Johnson’s wedding, see “Society” [The marriage of Miss Mildred Ijams].

471  For Van Sickle’s date and place of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for John V Van Sickle (1920). For his residence in Baltimore, see Van Sickle, Planning for the South, p. vii, and Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for John B Van Sickle [sic]. On his father’s tenure in the Baltimore school system, see Hall, Baltimore: Its History and its People, vol. 1, p. 579, and “Ousting Van Sickle Ends School Fight.”

472  See Haverford College, The Record of the Class of 1913 of Haverford College, p. 26.

473  See Harvard University, Harvard Alumni Directory, p. 727, and Mead, Harvard’s Military Record in the World War, p. 970.

474  See Wikipedia, “Fokker D.VII” and Hart, Aces Falling, pp. 67–68.

475 The National Archives (United Kingdom), Air combat reports: 32 Squadron . . . , report for June 6, 1918, for pilot Lt. P. Hooper.

476  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Air combat reports: 32 Squadron . . ., report for June 6, 1918, for pilot Capt. W. A. Tyrrell.

477   The National Archives (United Kingdom), Air combat reports: 32 Squadron . . ., report for May 16, 1918, for pilot Lieut. H. L. W. Flynn. On Jerry Flynn, see Rogers, A Yankee Ace in the RAF, pp. 107 and 176–77.

478  Wikipedia, “Pfalz D.III.”

479  See the Ancestry.com, 1911 Census of Canada, record for Ralph McBean [sic], regarding his father’s occupation and background. McGill University Montreal, Annual Calendar for Session 1915–1916, p. 426, lists MacBean among those in their first year of agricultural studies. Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Ralph Elsworth Leet Macbean [sic], supplies his place and date of birth and his profession (“Lieut., R.F.C.”) on the date he achieved the certificate (Sept. 8, 1917); there is also a photo of him. For his posting to No. 32 Squadron, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Ralph Ellsworth Leet MacBean.

480  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Arthur James Bateman.

481  On Leese in 1914–15, see Auckland War Memorial Museum, Cenotaph Database, record for Henry Clifford Leese.

482  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Henry Clifford Leese.

483  See Wikipedia, “George Lawson (RAF officer)” and The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for George Edgar Bruce Lawson.

484  Here and subsequently see R.F.C./R.A.F. No. 32 Squadron Record Book (22 May 1918–10 November 1918).

485  John Wallace Trusler was a Canadian, born December 20, 1898; see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for John Wallace Trusler.

486  See his attestation papers at the Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Richard Thomley [sic; sc. Thornley] Hall.

487 The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Richard Thornley Hall.

488  Graham appears as “S. H. Graham” in Appendix 1 in Callender, War in an Open Cockpit; as “Robert S. W. Graham” at www.airwar1.org.uk, 32 Squadron RAF 1918; he is identified as “Robert Graham” in a note to Bogart Rogers’s letter of June 9, 1918. For date and place of birth, see Ancestry.com, Ontario, Canada Births, 1869–1913, record for Summer Graham Watson [sic].

489  See Law Society of Upper Canada Archives’ Photostream, photograph of Sumner W. Graham. On his being called to the bar, see “Call to the Bar.”

490  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Sumner Watson Graham.

491  VanWyngarden, Jagdgeschwader Nr. II: Geschwader Berthold, pp. 49 & 77 respectively.

492  Laabs continued to fly with Jasta 13. On July 16, 1918, Laabs’s plane caught fire; he apparently jumped and was killed by the fall. On Laabs’s death, see Duiven, “Das Königliche Jagdgeschwader Nr. II,” pt. 1, p. 228. The entry for Laabs in Franks, Bailey, and Duiven, Casualties of the German Air Service 1914–1918, gives Laabs’s date and place of birth as December 26, 1892, Woedtke.

493  Duiven, “Das Königliche Jagdgeschwader Nr. II,” part 1, pp. 197 and 219.

494  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Arthur James Bateman. There are records for an Arthur James Bateman travelling between London and Brazil, but I have not been able to establish that this is the same person.

495  Birth and death dates taken from the Bates grave marker in Loudon Cemetery in Baltimore, Maryland; see Emily, “Julia Augustine Bates.” For Julia Augustine Bates’s maiden name, see Dodd, Ohio Marriages, 1803–1900, record for Julia A. Smith.

496  I have found no primary source for Nell Botts’s date of birth, but numerous family genealogies supply April 18, 1868. For her date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Ellen Arthur Botts.

497 Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for John M Mercer [sic] (Liverpool, May 5, 1936, Scythia).

498  Lees, Portrait of Johnny, p. 114.

499  His date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Charles Edward Brown Jr. See Weedpatch [pseud.], “Alfred Hoyt Granger” for the date of death.

500  Benson, Saint Mark’s School in the War Against Germany, p. 41.

501  See “Memorials.”

502  Birth date is taken from entry for Burwell in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919. Death date is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., Headstone Applications for Military Veterans, 1925–1963, record for Paul Verdier Burwell.

503  “History of London Branch of the Supply Section and of Liquidation Section,” p. 27.

504  For service dates, see the entry for Burwell in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919. For details of his R.A.F. activity, see Munsell, Air Service History, pp. 35–36, as well as Burwell’s own account, pp. 57–58.

505  “Reserve Corps Orders” in the New York Times.

506  For Callender’s date of birth, see Callender, War in an Open Cockpit, p. 15.

507  See Hudson, “Capt. Alvin Andrew Callender,” p. 156, and Callender, War in an Open Cockpit, pp. 83–84. The list of victories at The Aerodrome,”Alvin Callender,” does not include Callender’s downing of an enemy plane on August 9, 1918. See Callender’s letter of August 4, 1918, and note 1 regarding the R.A.F. policy of not focussing on aerial combat victories and creating “aces.” In this letter Callender himself appears to undercount, crediting himself with “three Huns officially now,” while he is now credited with having downed four planes by this point. Counts were (and are), in any case, imprecise and sometimes contentious.

508  See Callender’s letters of August 18 and 23, 1918.

509  Callender, War in an Open Cockpit, p. 97. See also Appendix 1 on p. 103, which indicates what happened to the various members of No. 32 Squadron.

510 For his date of birth, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for George Frederick Charles Caswell. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for George Frederick Caswell [sic].

511  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for George Frederick Charles Caswell.

512  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for George Frederick Charles Caswell.

513  See “Flying Officers” and “Commission Relinquished.”

514  See The Aerodrome, “Arthur Claydon.”

515  Coffman’s date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Milton Buell Coffman, which appears to have been filled out by him. Secondary sources, including the Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography, give a birth date of 1883. His date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., Headstone Applications for Military Veterans, 1925–1963, record for Milton Buell Coffman.

516  “General News,” p. 1008.

517  “Historical and Genealogical Notes and Queries,” p. 80.

518  See Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Milton Buell Coffman.

519  While both the census of 1900 and that of 1910 indicate that Coleman was born in 1892, the date of birth on his draft registration card is October 29, 1893. See Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Dewitt B Coleman [sic]; Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for De Witt T Coleman [sic]; and Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for De Witt Coleman Jr. [sic].

520 See “American Aviation in Italy,” with the posting by “ONEALM” of July 7, 2005. On his Italian squadron assignment, see Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 304. It is possible that Coleman, like George Lewis, crossed the Atlantic on the Mongolia in the same convoy as Parr. However, I have not been able to find a passenger list for the Mongolia, and Coleman is mentioned by Lewis only once, in connections with his death, in the diaries and letters that make up Dear Bert: An American Pilot Flying in World War I Italy (ed. Edward Davis Lewis).

521  See relevant entry for October 27, 1918, in Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield. For background, see Hallstead, “World War I: American Caproni Pilots in Italy.” On the Italian award, see “Medaglia di Oro al Valore Militare,” where “ONEALM” posts a translation of the award citation as well as a photo of Coleman. The original citation can be found at “Coleman De Witt Fenafly [sic]. On non-Italian recipients, see Wikipedia, “Gold Medal of Military Valor.”

522  See Binns et al., “11. Constance M. Walker 1919” [web page]. On Percy Henry Walker’s profession, see the reference to him in Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Francis John Culley. For Constance’s middle name and for Olive Mary’s date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Olive Mary Walker.

523 For Francis John Culley’s birth date, see Free BMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837–1915, record for Francis John Culley. His date of death is recorded in Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Francis John Culley.

524  For Douglass’s full name and place and date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Charles William Harold Douglass.

525  On the date of his joining 73, see Munsell, Air Service History, p. 36a. On the location of No. 73 Squadron, see Philpott, The Birth of the Royal Air Force p. 416.

526  See Franks, Bailey, and Duiven, The Jasta War Chronology, p. 187.

527  For Dwyer’s date of birth, see Ohio, Adjutant General’s Dept., The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, World War, 1917–1918, vol. 5, p. 4581. For his date of death, see “Deaths” [including obituary notice for Geoffrey J. Dwyer].

528  For Dwyer’s employment in 1920, see Ancestry.com, 1920 United States Federal Census, record for Geoffrey J Dwyer.

529  See Ancestry.com, New York, State Census, 1925, record for Geoffrey Dwyer.

530  See Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Geoffrey J Dwyer.

531  See Ancestry.com, Pennsylvania Veterans Burial Cards, 1777–1999, record for Sidney Edlund, for birth and death dates. See S. W. and M. G. Edlund, Pick your job—and land it!

532  Fleet’s date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Charles C Fleet; date of death from Ancestry.com, U.S., Headstone Applications for Military Veterans, 1925–1963, record for Charles C Fleet. On his service in the 135th Observation Squadron, see Sloan, Wings of Honor, pp. 220, 314, and 320. The citation for “Charles C. Fleet” for service with the “90th aeronaut co.” and a Croix de Guerre award in the “List of Honors and Awards, No. 1: Air Service, American E. F,” p. 11, is in error: the recipient was actually Charles M Flett; see Florida Department of Military Affairs, “Foreign service decoration, POWs citations Floridians, World War I,” p. 13. On Fleet’s life postwar, see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Charles C Fleet, and “Charles C. Fleet Obituary.”

533 For Gaines’s birth date see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Albert Belding Gaines Jr. For his date of death, see “Albert Belding Gaines, Jr.”

534  “Albert Belding Gaines, Jr.”

535  “Albert Belding Gaines, Jr.”

536  “387 Civilians Own Airplanes in State.”

537  “5 Killed by Autos in Jersey Accidents.”

538  For Dorothea’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Dorothea Goodwin. She is listed as a survivor in the obituary for her brother, William Murray Goodwin, who died in May of 1973; see “Deaths” [including obituary notice for William Murray Goodwin]. Bruce Patterson, “Patterson Family Tree,” record for Dorothy Cadenhead, gives 1989 as her date of death; this is undocumented but may be based on personal knowledge.

539  See Ancestry.com, UK, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890–1960, record for Miss Jean McLelland; Jean’s name is immediately followed by that of “Miss D. Goodwin,” which is followed by that of “R A McLelland.” In a letter to Parr postmarked January 1, 1919, Jean writes: “Dot and I send you a happy new years greeting. I was thinking of a year ago last night. Do you remember? We got back here [London] last week and we came over on the Olympic.” See McLelland, Letter to Lieut. Parr Hooper.

540  See Ancestry.com, Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865–1935, record for Dorothea Goodwin (arriving at St. Johns, Newfoundland, on the Scandinavian, December 26, 1919), which gives her occupation in England as V.A.D. nurse and her intended destination as Kingston.

541  See Ancestry.com and Genealogical Research Library, Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1801–1928, record for Alice Dorothea Goodwin. On her husband, see “A. F. G. Cadenhead Dies Monday.”

542  For Amne Grafflin’s date and place of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Amne Landstreet Grafflin.

Amne Grafflin’s date of birth is a vexed question, but I believe she was born March 12, 1850. The 1850 Baltimore census (conducted July 29, 1850) lists George, Laura, and son William Grafflin, as well as”Anna L.” 4/12 years of age; see Ancestry.com, 1850 United States Federal Census, record for the household of George W Grafflin. Amne Grafflin’s 1881 passport application clearly states her age as 31. (See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Anne [sic] L Grafflin. [1881]) The summing up of the evidence in the appeal of the court case Amne and her husband brought against her brother William makes it clear that in 1897 she was 47 years old (see Vrooman et al. vs. Grafflin et al.) However, the 1880 census gives her age as 24; see Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1880 United States Federal Census, record for Anne [sic] Grafflin. The 1910 census indicates that she is 50 or 52; see Ancestry.com, 1910 United States Federal Census, record for Anne [sic] L. Grafflin. Her passport applications of July 5, 1915 and April 23, 1919 both clearly give her date of birth as March 12, 1859; see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Amme [sic] L Grafflin (1915) and record for Annie [sic] L Grafflin (1919). I can find no travel related age documentation for the period when she was married to Walter Vrooman, but the discrepancy may have begun when she first went with Vrooman to England and perhaps felt a 10 year age difference more acceptable than 19. It may later have seemed impolitic to depart from the established record, even after she was divorced. Vrooman apparently died in 1909; see Brown, Catalogue of Beta Theta Pi, col. 336.

543  For Amne Grafflin’s place of residence see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Anne [sic] L Grafflin, and Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Amne Landstreet Grafflin.

544  For date of birth, see Ancestry.com, Ontario, Canada Births, 1869–1913, record for Summer Graham Watson [sic]. His date of death is taken from Law Society of Upper Canada Archives’ Photostream, photograph of Sumner W. Graham

545  See Ancestry.com, Boston Passenger and Crew Lists, 1820–1943, record for Sumner Watson Graham (March 3, 1919, Winifredian), where he is described as “Demobilized Officer returning to Canada.” Ancestry.com, New York, Passenger Lists, 1820–1957, record for Summer [sic] Watson Graham (arriving August 2, 1936, on the President Roosevelt) gives his profession as “barrister.”

546 Ancestry.com, 1900 United States Federal Census, record for Helen H L Henderson, provides the month and year of her birth; [Bryn Mawr Class of 1911], Book of the Class of Nineteen Eleven, p. 223, gives month and day. For her date of death, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Helen Green

547  For Sydney’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Sydney M Green Jr. For his date of death, see Sassytazzy, “Sydney Green, Jr.” On their later residences (and their children), see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Helen L Green, and 1940 United States Federal Census, record for Helen H L Green.

548  See “Social Notes.”

549  For his date of birth, see Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Wilfred [sic] Barratt Green; for his date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Wilfrid Barratt Green. There are variations in the spelling of his middle name, but “Barratt,” which appears on the probate calendar, is probably correct.

550 See The Aerodrome, “Wilfrid Barratt Green.”

551 See Rogers, A Yankee Ace in the RAF, p. 162, on the Croix de Guerre. The D.F.C. citation is transcribed at The Aerodrome, “Wilfrid Barratt Green.” Rogers refers to Green’s Legion of Honor award on p. 230.

552  See Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Wilfred Barrett Green [sic].

553  See Free BMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837–1915, record for Annie Maria Greville; her date of death is recorded on a memorial stone in the graveyard of Capel Ifan (Church of St. John), Pontyberem, Carmarthenshire, Wales; photograph and transcription at LouisePhilp, “McKenzie/Walters Family,” record for Annie Maria Greville.

554  See Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Anna M Greville. On George William Anderson, see “Obituaries” [Dr. George W. Anderson].

555  For his date of birth and an account of his R.F.C./R.A.F. career, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Richard Thornley Hall. A newspaper article from the Victoria Daily Times (date not provided) posted to Times5, “Flanagan Family Tree,” record for Richard Thornley Hall, provides the account of his 1918 injury. An obituary article from the same paper (date not provided) posted to the same page provides information on his postwar career. For his date of death, see “Hall” [obituary for Richard Thornley Hall].

556  For his full name, see Ancestry.com, Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621–1967, record (marriage) for George Hayward Harrower. For his dates of birth and death, see Ancestry.com, 1911 Census of Canada, record for George H Harrower and Ancestry.com, Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621–1967, record (burial) for George Hayward Harrower. For his return to Canada, see Ancestry.com, Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865–1935, record for George H Harrower (arriving at St. John New Brunswick December 11, 1917, Grampion [sic]).

557  For Gordon Stuart Harrower’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Gordon S Harrower; a terminus post quem for his death is provided by Ancestry.com, Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger and Crew Lists, 1900–1959, record for Gordon S Harrower (March 3, 1958). Under the date September 23, 1917, in The Sky Their Battlefield, Henshaw indicates that “GS Harrover [sic],” flying a Sopwith Camel with the RNAS No. 3 Squadron, engaged in combat with a (German) Albatros over Middelkerke and was wounded in action. See also the discussion thread “Voss’ last flight” regarding aerial combat on this date, where the name is given as “Harrower.” See the “Sopwith Camel Victories” thread, where participant Graeme’s list credits GS Harrower with two victories. On his return to military duty, see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Gordon S. Harrower [Liverpool, April 19, 1918, Lapland]. See the note “Ex-R.N.A.S. Officers in Canada” regarding a December 10, 1921 reunion of former RNAS officers at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal; among those present was Flight Lieutenant Gordon Harrower.

558 Ancestry.com, Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865–1935, record for Robert Hamilton Harrower (arriving at New Brunswick on April 15, 1919, Chaudière). The date of birth is taken from his attestation papers (Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Robert Hamilton Harrower); the 1901 and 1911 Canada censuses give different years. The terminus post quem for his date of death is provided by Ancestry.com, Border Crossings: From Canada to U.S., 1895–1954, record for Captain Robert Hamilton Harrower (May 17, 1951).

559 See Skinner, “Commanding the 11th,” which includes Heater’s own description of his R.A.F. service; see also Greene, “Eleventh Aero Squadron”; Hudson, Hostile Skies, p. 189; and Maurer, The U.S. Air Service in World War I, vol. 4, p. 94. The entry for Heater in North Dakota, Adjutant General’s Office, Roster of the Men and Women . . . of North Dakota in the World War, 1917–1918 appears to be mistaken in stating that Heater served in the 168th Aero Squadron.

560  See Zinn and Heater, “American Fliers with the I.A.F.”

561  For his postwar employment, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Charles Louis Heater.

562  See entry for Henderson in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, for his date of birth and military record.

563  For Henderson’s marriage, see Society, Baltimore Society Visiting List or Blue Book . . . 1921, p. 21.

564  See Ancestry.com, 1940 United States Federal Census, record for Chas W Henderson [sic]; and Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Charles Martin Henderson.

565  See Ancestry.com, North Carolina, Death Certificates, 1909–1975, record for Mary Henderson Bradway, and the “Biographical Statement” in the National Equal Justice Library, Georgetown Law Library, “John Saeger Bradway Collection.”

566  “List of Honors and Awards, No. 1,” p. 8.

567  On Herbert, see Ohio History Center, “Thomas J. Herbert,” and Supreme Court of Ohio, “Thomas John Herbert,” as well as the entry in Henshaw for August 8, 1918, for Herbert. For his war service, see Ohio, Adjutant General’s Dept., The Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, World War, 1917–1918, vol 8, p. 7440.

568  For his date of birth, see “Stephen Hibbard.” Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Stephen Leslie Hibbard, gives March 22, 1922, as his date of death. A brief obituary in The Marlburian gives March 21; see “O.M’s,” p. 89.

569  For birth and death dates, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Mary Curtin.

570  See R. L. Polk & Company, Baltimore, Maryland, City Directory 1918, p 1081, where she is described as an “asst librarian,” and Ancestry.com, 1920 United States Federal Census, record for Mary H Curtin. For her husband’s full name, see The Yale Banner and Potpourri, vol. 7, p. 470.

571  See entry (p. 117) for Mrs. Mary H. Curtin in R. L. Polk & Company, Polk’s Clarksburg (Harrison County, W. VA.) City Directory 1960.

572  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for William Ernest B. Holland.

573  See “The Royal Aero Club of the United Kingdom: Official Notices to Members.”

574  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for William Ernest B. Holland. The writing on this record is not always clear; his permanent address appears to be given as “Nant Road Shanghan [sic] China”; on the same page, there is the annotation “Applicant for R.A.F. 1R 25.10.40. Shanghai Club, Shanghai.” There are records of the death of a pilot named William E. Holland at St. Albans on December 10, 1940, but I have not been able to establish whether he was the same man. See “Unaccounted airmen — 10–12–1940” and International Wargraves Photography Project, “Pilot Officer (Pilot) William Ernest Holland.”

575  Dates are personal knowledge based on family papers.

576  Date of birth is personal knowledge based on family papers. Date of death (which is given variously in family papers) is taken from the death certificate at the Maryland State Archives.

577  For Mary’s birth and death dates, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Mary Powell; for Jack’s, see Ancestry.com, U.S. National Cemetery Interment Control Forms, 1928–1962, record for John Osborne Powell. I have found no public record of their marriage, but have a copy of their engraved marriage announcement. Mary described to me having met Jack on a ship, and his name appears on the page preceding hers on the May 30, 1912, Merion passenger list (see Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for J O Powell).

578  Regarding their trip to Europe in 1921, see Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for John Osborne Powell, and appended pages.

579 Personal knowledge.

580  For early employment, see Ancestry.com, 1920 United States Federal Census, record for Marrion B Hopkins [sic]. For birth and death dates and later employment, see entry for Marion Byrd Hopkins at Hopkins, Descendants of Gerard Hopkins of Anne Arundel Co.

581  See Cowan, “Harvey Family Collection,” and the entry for Harvey in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919. For Rose Lindsay Hopkins Harvey’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, Church and Town Records, 1708–1985, (baptism) record for Rose Lindsay Hopkins; for her date of death, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Rose Harvey. For Harvey’s date of death, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for F. Harvey.

582 Ottilie Frances Wright Howard’s date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Attil Wright [sic]; I should note that the first digit in “20” is difficult to read in that document; the day may be “10.” On Allan Campbell Palmer Howard, see the text at McGill University Library, “The Howard Family.”

583  See “Chapman, Ottilie” for her date of death and regarding her second marriage and widowhood. I am grateful to Mr. Christopher Lyons and Mr. Duncan S. Cowie at the Osler Library at McGill for bringing this notice to my attention.

584  For Johnson’s birth and death dates and rank, see Ancestry.com, U.S. National Cemetery Interment Control Forms, 1928–1962, record for Charles Reid Johnson. For his World War I service, see the record for him in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War. For his civilian work in San Diego, see “Captain C. Reid Johnson Named Director of New San Diego Office.” For his World War II activity, see “Capt. C. Reid Johnson” [obituary].

585  See Vacca, “Annabel Kidston (1896–1981).” For her date of death, see “Death of an Artist.”

586  For Mrs. Kidston’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, Scotland, Select Births and Baptisms, 1564–1950, record for Alice Maude Hedderwick. For her maiden and married names, see “Births, Marriages, and Deaths.” For her date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Alice Maud Kidston. Depending on the source, her middle name is given as “Maud” or “Maude.”

587  Her date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, 1901 Scotland Census, record for Helen M Kidston; her date of death is provided by Pkidston, “Kidston PGK Feb 2013,” record for Helen Maud Kidston. The entry for her mother, Alice Maud Kidston, in the National Probate Calendar (see preceding note) gives full names for each daughter and terms them “spinsters.”

588  For his date of birth, see Ancestry.com, 1901 Scotland Census, record for James B Kidston. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for James Burns Kidston.

589 See Pkidston, “Kidston PGK Feb 2013,” record for Margaret Hedderwick Kidston, for her dates of birth and death.

590  See Vacca, “Annabel Kidston (1896–1981).”

591  King’s date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Frank B King [1910]. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, District of Columbia, Select Deaths and Burials, 1840–1964, record for Frank Bochius [sic] King. On his place of residence, see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Frank B King.

592  See Franks, American Aces of World War I, p. 35. Knight’s R.A.F. service record indicates that his “occupation in civilian life” was real estate; see the National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Duerson Knight. His World War II draft card indicates that in 1942 he was working for Baird and Warner, a major real estate company, in Chicago; see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Duerson Knight. His date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, California, Death Index, 1940–1997, record for Duerson Knight.

593  “History of the Air Service in Italy and of American Pilots on the Italian Front,” p. 65; Wikipedia, “Fiorello La Guardia.”

594  La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, pp. 170–71.

595  “History of the Air Service in Italy and of American Pilots on the Italian Front,” pp. 2, [47], and passim.

596  Ibid., pp. [48–49], and La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, pp. 191–92.

597  “History of the Air Service in Italy and of American Pilots on the Italian Front,” p. 30.

598  Ibid., pp. 7, 23, and passim.

599  Ibid., p. 68, and La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, p. 177

600  “History of the Air Service in Italy and of American Pilots on the Italian Front,” pp. 37–38, La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, pp. 182–83, and Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 304.

601  “History of the Air Service in Italy and of American Pilots on the Italian Front,” p. 15, and La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, p. 196.

602  Wikipedia, “Fiorello La Guardia.”

603  Hilda May Latta’s date of death and approximate birth date are taken from “Largnahension Graveyard Kilberry, west of West Loch Tarbert, Argyll, Scotland.”

604  See [Queen’s Birthday Honours], p. 3987.

605  Wikipedia, “George Lawson (RAF Officer)” and The Aerodrome, “George Lawson.” Lawson’s date of death has been thought to be November 19, 1922, but his grave marker, a photo of which is available at The South African War Graves Project, gives the date November 19, 1923. The information about his death at the SAWGP also differs slightly from that provided by Wikipedia and The Aerodrome.

606  For Leese’s date of birth and year of death, see The Department of Internal Affairs [New Zealand], Births, Deaths and Marriages Online, death record for Henry Clifford Leese.

607  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Henry Clifford Leese.

608  See Ancestry.com, New Zealand, Electoral Rolls, 1853–1981, record for Henry Clifford Leese, for the years 1919, 1935, 1957, and 1981.

609  See Ancestry.com, New Zealand, World War II Appointments, Promotions, Transfers and Resignations, 1939–1945, record for Henry Clifford Leese, Flying Officer, 4 June 1940.

610  Ancestry.com, Great Britain, Royal Aero Club Aviators’ Certificates, 1910–1950, record for Ralph Elsworth Leet Macbean [sic], supplies his date of birth; his date of death is given (without documentation, but presumably with personal knowledge) at Bgmacbean, “MacBean Family Tree,” record for Ralph Ellesworth [sic] Leet MacBean.

611  See “No 32 Squadron RAF Claims and Losses 1918” and The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Ralph Ellsworth Leet MacBean.

612  Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Ralph E Macbean [sic]; Ancestry.com, Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621–1967, record (marriage) for Mac Bean [sic]; and Ancestry.com, Canada, Voters Lists, 1935–1980, record for Ralph E MacBean (1972).

613  For birth and death dates see “Colonel Leslie MacDill.”

614  On MacDill’s being ordered to Paris, see La Guardia, The Making of an Insurgent, pp. 168–69, and Springs, Letters from a War Bird, p. 36 (letter of October 7, 1917).

615  On MacDill’s involvement with the school of aerial gunnery at St. Jean de Monts, see “American Aerial Gunnery School St. Jean-de-Monts, (Vendee), France,” pp. 80 [2], 98 [14], and 96 [13]. This, one of the reports included in Gorrell, is fascinating both regarding the challenges of locating and constructing such a school and for its descriptions of the local populace, far from the war and the front. As in much of Gorrell, more than one pagination is used, and locating particular passages can be a challenge.

616  On MacDill’s post-war career, his fatal crash, and the naming of MacDill Air Force Base, see “MacDill AFB Air Show 1976.”

617  For Maloney’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Clarance [sic] Bernard Maloney. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, California, Death Index, 1905–1939, record for Clarence B Maloney.

618  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for C. B. Maloney

619  See An Honor roll: containing a pictorial record of the war service of the men and women of Kalamazoo County, 1917–1918–1919, p. 146.

620  Barrass, “No 91 – 95 Squadron Histories.”

621  See Columbia University in the City of New York, Directory of Officers and Students 1922–1923, p. 247; Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Clarence Benard [sic] Maloney; and Ancestry.com, New York, Passenger Lists, 1820–1957, record for Clarence Maloney.

622  On Maloney’s residence and occupation in 1930, see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Clarence B Maloney.

623  For his birth and death dates, see Ancestry.com, California, Death Index, 1940–1997, record for Conrad H Matthiessen.

624  For his commission, seecablegram 936–R (from McCain to Pershing dated March 17, 1918).

625  For his squadron affiliations, see Doyle, “War Birds Pictorial,” pp. 49–50 (there is a picture of Matthiessen on p. 50). On his R.A.F. service, see also Munsell, Air Service History, p. 44.

626  See Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for Conrad Henry Matthiessen Jr. [1921] for his occupation; see also ip.com, “Aeroplane (04–Nov–1930).”

627  Beauclerk-Dewar, Burke’s Landed Gentry, pp. 891. For her date of death, see Noonan, Barry, comp., London, England, Death Notices from The Times, 1982–1988, record for Alison Johnstone.

628  See Sorn Castle, “The McIntyre Family History” [web page], and Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Thomas Walker McIntyre.

629  See Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Jeanie Paterson Galloway, where she is described as “of Sorn Castle.”

630  For Jean’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Jean Mclelland [sic]. For her death date, which I have otherwise been unable to document, see Crawford, The Macphersons and Magees, p. 109.

631  For the arrival in Halifax on March 16, 1918, of Jean, her father, and her friend Dorothy Goodwin, see Ancestry.com, Canadian Passenger Lists, 1865–1935, record for Major Reuben A McLelland; the alphabetical listing of the manifest also includes Dorothy Goodwin and Jean McLelland. And see McLelland, Letter to Lieut. Parr Hooper.

632  See Ancestry.com, Canada, Ocean Arrivals (Form 30A), 1919–1924, record for Jean McLelland Wren (Quebec, October, 1921, Canada).

633  For Jean McLelland’s marriage, see Ancestry.com, London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754–1921, record for Jean McLelland. On Wren, see Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Sidney Wren.

634  See Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Birth Index, 1916–2005, record for Reuben A V Wren, and Crawford, The Macphersons and Magees, p. 109.

635  See Ancestry.com, Canada, Ocean Arrivals (Form 30A), 1919–1924, record for Jean McLelland Wren (Quebec, October, 1921, Canada).

636  See Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index, 1916–2005, record for Sidney M Wren (marriage to Rattray or Ferguson) and Argent, “Ferguson, Ian Bruce (1917–1988).”

637  See Wendon, “The Ups and Downs of British Shipping,” p. 25, regarding McLelland’s bankruptcy. For his dates of birth and death, see Ancestry.com, Ontario, Canada, Deaths, 1869–1938 and Deaths Overseas, 1939–1947, record for Reuben Alexander McLelland.

638  For birth date and alternate name for Lulu Belle, see Ancestry.com, 1901Census of Canada, record for Isabella L Mclelland. For her date of death, see Crawford, The MacPhersons and Magees, p. 96.

639  See Ancestry.com, UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Mary McLelland (Liverpool, April 8, 1922, Minnedosa), which indicates she’s a student at St. Hilda’s Hall. See “Contributors to This Issue” regarding her association with the Canadian National Institute for the Blind. On her relocation to Florida, see Ancestry.com, Border Crossings: From Canada to U.S., 1895–1956, record for Mary Charlotte Mclelland (Niagara Falls, January 26, 1943).

640  See Ancestry.com, Canada, Ocean Arrivals (Form 30A), 1919–1924, record for Mary McLelland (Quebec, September 22, 1922, Montclare), and Ancestry.com, Border Crossings: From Canada to U.S., 1895–1956, record for Mary Charlotte Mclelland (Niagara Falls, January 26, 1943), both of which refer to her sister Helen living in Canada. For Helen Grace McLelland Ransom’s 1924 marriage to Norman Claire Sutherland, see Ancestry.com, Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621–1967, record (marriage) for Grace M Lelland [sic] Ransom. On Henry Bayly Ransom’s death, see entry for him.

641  See “Jennie R. McQueen” [obituary] in the Washington Post and Times Herald.

642  Personal knowledge.

643  Personal knowledge.

644  For dates of birth and death of Bryson Carter and Louise Millikin, see FranBod, “Louise Harriman Millikin.” For their move to Pennsylvania and his occupation, see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for B Carter Millikin.

645  Miller’s date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for J Maxwell Miller. His date of death is taken from his death certificate at the Maryland State Archives.

646  For Milnor’s full name and date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Joseph Kirkbride Milnor. His death date is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Joseph Milnor. See also “J. K. Milnor, Ridgewood, NJ.” “Breguet’s Crash File #131” is the source for his move to a non-flying job. The group photo is at “Staff Officers, American Aviation Headquarters London, England, August 1, 1918.”

647  For Milnor’s post war profession, see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Joseph K Milnor.

648  For Mudge’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Dudley Hersey Mudge. For his death date, see Ancestry.com, Florida Death Index, 1877–1988, record for Dudley Hersey Mudge. For his profession, see Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Dudley Mudge.

649  On Grace Revere Osler, see McGill University Library, “Grace Revere Osler.”

650  For Palmer’s dates of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Robert Thomas Palmer; for his date of death, see U.S., Department of Veterans Affairs BIRLS Death File, 1850–2010, record for Robert Palmer.

651  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Robert T. Palmer. On No. 50 Squadron, see Philpott, The Birth of the Royal Air Force, pp. 120, 240, 244, 252, and 408.

652  See cablegram 874–S (from Pershing to AGWAR dated April 8, 1918).

653  Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 387, indicates Palmer was assigned to the 85th on October 11, 1918. The movements of this squadron are recounted in Schaffner, “85th Aero Squadron (Observation).”

654  See Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 377.

655  I have not found records either for Palmer’s initial training as an electrical engineer (the occupation listed on his World War I draft registration), nor for his later qualification as a lawyer, and, indeed, it has been difficult to pin down the right Robert Thomas Palmer in the available records. However, a roster of cadets compiled by Clayton Knight in the 1960s identifies Palmer as having an address of 88 Broad St., Boston, and comparison of this address with those provided by Palmer’s World War II draft registration and city directories points to the Alabama born Ohio electrical engineer of the World War I draft registration and the Boston lawyer being one and the same. See “Roster from Clayton Knight,”; Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Robert Thomas Palmer; and R. L. Polk, Polk’s Boston (Suffolk County, Mass) City Directory . . . 1957, entry for Robert T Palmer.

656  For Paskill’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Reuben Lee Paskill.

657  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Reuben Lee Paskill

658  See “American Combats in the Air . . . Lieut. R. L. Paskill . . . 4 July 1918.”

659  See entry for Paskill under that date in Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield.

660 See “Reuben L. Paskill.”

661  Tilton, “Charles Snowden Piggot, June 5, 1892–July 6, 1973.”

662  See Eastbourne College Roll of Service 1914–1918, pp. 46–47. His date of birth is provided by Ancestry.com, India, Select Births and Baptisms, 1786–1947, record for Henry Bayley [sic] Ransom. His date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Henry Bayly Ransom.

663  For Read’s date of birth, see the entry for him in the Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–2014, record for Francis Read.

664  See entry for that date in Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield; also the December 7, 2010, entry by R. Gannon at “Franz Ray” (discussion thread) at Aerodrome Forum, and the entry for Read in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

665  See Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Francis K. Read.

666  See the entry for Cecelia Oliven Redden in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919, and Ancestry.com, U.S., Naturalization Records—Original Documents, 1795–1972 (World Archives Project), record for Cecelia Olive Redden. See United States, Surgeon-General’s Office, Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Army, to the Secretary of War, 1919, vol. 2, pp. 1942–43 on Base Hospital No. 42, pp. 1724–26 on Evacuation Hospital No. 21.

667  I have not found a record of the marriage, but the record for Cecelia O. Mortenson in Ancestry.com, California, San Francisco Area Funeral Home Records, 1895–1985, establishes that Cecelia O. Redden became the wife of Gunnar John Mortenson (and also provides her birth and death dates). They were married by the time of their voyage from France to the U.S. in September of 1927; see Ancestry.com, New York, Passenger Lists, 1820–1957, record for Cecile [sic] O Mortenson. For his rank, and birth and death dates, see National Cemetery Administration, U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775–2006, record for Gunnar John Mortenson.

668 See Chapter X (“The Diocese of Georgia Carries on under Bishop Reese”) of Malone’s The Episcopal Church in Georgia 1733–1957. Ella’s birth date is family knowledge; for her death date, see Ancestry.com, Georgia Deaths, 1919–98, record for Ella P. Reese.

669  For Ritter’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Roland Hammond Ritter.

670 Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 219, gives May 11, 1918, as the date of Ritter’s posting to No. 56 Squadron. Revell, High in the Empty Blue, p. 408, gives 12 May 1918. Ritter’s R.A.F. service record includes no reference to No. 56 Squadron.

671  On the May 16, 1918, crash, see the entry in Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield; see also The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Roland H. Ritter (the former describes him as “OK,” the latter as “injured). On his leaving No. 56 Squadron, see Revell, High in the Empty Blue, p. 408; see p. 312 regarding illness in the squadron at this time.

672  See Townsend, “Aeroplane Squadron Locations during World War 1.”

673  On Ritter’s fatal crash see the entry in Henshaw, The Sky Their Battlefield; on his place of burial, see “Roland H. Ritter.”

674  For both birth and death dates and place of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Mary Katherine D Robin.

675  For Anne’s birth date, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Anne De Quitteville [sic] Robin. She died January 17, 1999, in Sutton, Surrey, according to a notice in the London Gazette on January 29, 1999.

676 See “De Quetteville-Robin” [obituary]. Marian Muriel Whiting’s letter to Mary Bowen Hooper of July 24, 1918, alludes to Herman’s breakdown. His date of birth is taken from 2003–2005 Duston Directory & St Luke’s Archaeology, “Survey of Memorials at St. Luke’s Church,” entry for Roben [sic] H. See also see Scott Wilson, “A Letter of Introduction.”

677  See The Aerodrome, “Bogart Rogers.”

678  On Rogers’s post-war career, see Earl Rogers’s preface to his father’s letters.

679  For Rorison’s dates of birth and death, see Ancestry.com, North Carolina, Death Certificates, 1909–1975, record for John Chadbourn Rorison.

680  See Munsell, Air Service History, pp. 65–66 for Rorison’s account; Munsell’s comment is on p. 66.

681  See Munsell, Air Service History, p. 47 (Rorison) and 36 (Burwell).

682  See Sloan, Wings of Honor, p. 379.

683  “History of London Branch of the Supply Section and of Liquidation Section,” p. 27.

684  See see Crenshaw, ed., Directory of Living Almuni of the University of Virginia, p. 141 and Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for John Chadbourn Rorison.

685  See “History of 25th Aero Squadron, (Pursuit),” p. 2; Ancestry.com,UK, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878–1960, record for Harmon C Rorison [Carmania arriving Liverpool January 24, 1918]; and Gardner, Who’s Who in American Aeronautics, p. 89.

686  For his dates of birth and death, see Barrass, “Air Commodore J C Russell” and Scottish Military Research Group, “Balmaghie Parish Churchyard,” as well as, for date of death, Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for John Cannan Russell. A grave marker, a photo of which is posted at Scottish Military Research Group, “Balmaghie Parish Churchyard,” appears to give the date of death as “15th FEB 1956" (mistranscribed [?] as “15th February 1966"). I cannot account for the discrepancy.

687  See Barrass, “No 16 – 20 Squadron Histories” and “Air Commodore J C Russell”; also Ancestry.com, British Army WWI Medal Rolls Index Cards, 1914–1920, record for John Canaan [sic] Russell.

688  Details of Russell’s military career are provided by Barrass, “Air Commodore J. C. Russell.”

689  See Holbek, “Knud Sehested.” For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, Florida Death Index, 1877–1998, record for Knud Sehested.

690  Arthur Slingluff’s dates are taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., Headstone Applications for Military Veterans, 1925–1963, record for Arthur F Slingluff. A birth date of September 6, 1896, is given at Artsling, “Slingluff Family Tree,” record for Arthur Fenelon Slingluff Sr., presumably curated by a descendant. Other than the headstone application, I find no primary sources, i.e., no passport application or draft registrations, that would provide original documentation.

691  See Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for Arthur F Slingluff.

692  For birth date and approximate death date, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Montgomery Slingluff.

693  See entry for Montgomery Johns Slingluff in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919.

694  See Ancestry.com, 1920 United States Federal Census, record for Montgomery J Slingluff.

695  See Ancestry.com, 1930 United States Federal Census, record for M John Slinghoff [sic], where his occupation is given as “salesman, automobile tires,” and Ancestry.com, 1940 United States Federal Census, record for Montgomery Slingluff, where his occupation is given as “civil engineer, building construction.” Both censuses indicate he was living in Dade County, Florida.

696  For Spalding’s birth and death dates and general information on his career, see Wikipedia, “Albert Spalding (violinist).”

697  See cablegram 330–S (from Pershing to Adjutant General dated November 30, 1917).

698  See “History of the Air Service in Italy and of American Pilots on the Italian Front,” pp. 2 and 118.

699  The Aerodrome, “Elliot Springs.” And see Burke Davis, War Bird: The Life and Times of Elliott White Springs, as well as Springs, Letters from a War Bird, ed. David K. Vaughan.

700  For his date of birth, see Ancestry.com, Australia Birth Index, 1788–1922, record for George A Stonier; for his date of death, Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for George Alfred Stonier.

701  Mrs. Stonier’s date of birth comes from a personal communication of Richard Whiting to Joe Fearon. Her date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Ethel Stonier.

702  Stratton’s birth date is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Lynn Lemuel Stratton. His date of death is taken from his record at The National Cemetery Administration’s U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca. 1775–2006. His profession is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Lynn Lemuel Stratton.

703  On Taber, see Seymour, ed., Memorial volume of the American field service in France, pp. 229–30 and subsequent unnumbered page with picture and text.

704  Van Sickle’s birth date is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S. Passport Applications, 1795–1925, record for John V Van Sickle; his approximate date of death is recorded in Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current record for John Van Sickle.

705  Van Sickle, “What Mises Did for Me.”

706  See Mead, ed., Harvard’s Military Record in the World War, p. 970, and Van Sickle, “What Mises Did for Me.”

707  See Harvard University, Quinquennial Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates of Harvard University, 1636–1930, p. 760; Armstrong, “Batman and Mises”; and Fleck, A Transatlantic History of the Social Sciences, p. 64.

708  See cablegram 823–S (from Pershing to AGWAR dated March 30, 1918).

709  The “Roster of First Detachment of US Cadets at Oxford” entry for Vassar has the annotation “To Issodun” [sic].

710  For Vassar’s professional activity, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942, record for Harold Worth Vassar; for birth and death dates, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Department of Veterans Affairs BIRLS Death File, 1850–2010, record for Harold Vassar

711  See Wikipedia, “George Augustus Vaughn, Jr.” and Fowler, “George Vaughn, 92, World War I Air Ace And School Founder.”

712  Dates of birth and death are taken from Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Harold Charles Vizard.

713  The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for H. C. Vizard.

714  See Free BMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837–1915, record for Harold Charles Vizard, and Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Harold Charles Vizard.

715  For his date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Russell Dutton Welsh. For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, Florida Death Index, 1877–1998, record for Russell Dutton Welsh.

716  On Welsh’s military service, see “Roll of Honor,” p. 793. On his post war career, see Ancestry.com, 1940 United States Federal Census, record for Russell D Welsh.

717  Date of birth taken from Haverford College, Record of the Class of 1910 of Haverford College, p. 37. For his date of death, see “Guy S. K. Wheeler” [obituary].

718  See The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for G. S. Wheeler.

719  On Wheeler, see “Guy S. K. Wheeler” [obituary].

720  For birth and death dates, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Madelaine [sic] Holland Whiting.

721  Wimbledon Common Prep School, “A Brief History.”

722  “Tales of Teachers at Two Schools.”

723  Mrs. Whiting’s birth year is taken from FreeBMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837–1915, record for Marian Ellen Little; her death date from Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for Marian Ellen Whiting.

724  For her date of birth and approximate death date, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index: 1916–2007, record for Marian Muriel Whiting. Her exact date of death is taken from [Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester, volume II, p. 181.

725  Information on her journeys taken from [Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester, volume II, pp. 181–82.

726  See Steenis-Kruseman, “Whiting, Marian Muriel” and Whiting, Reminiscences.

727  See “Maurice Henry Whiting, OBE, MB, BChir, FRCS” [obituary] and “Maurice Henry Whiting.” Dates of birth and death are taken from [Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester, volume II, p. 184.

728 Date of birth and career information taken from [Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester, volume II, pp. 185–86. For date of birth and approximate death date, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Death Index, 1916–2007, record for Ralph Oakley Whiting.

729  William Henry Whiting’s date of birth taken from [Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester Volume II, pp. 154–56; for his date of death, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, National Probate Calendar, record for William Henry Whiting.

730 [Whiting], The Whitings of Portchester, Volume II, pp. 154–56.

731  On Gerald Whiting’s honors, see [King’s Birthday Honours], Supplement to The Edinburgh Gazette of January 8, 1918, p. 202, and [King’s Birthday Honours], The London Gazette, July 20, 1928, p. 4899.

732  Gerald Whiting’s birth and death dates, and information on his post-war career are taken from [Whiting,] The Whitings of Portchester, volume II, pp. 183–84.

733  On Williams’s date of birth, promotion, and discharge date, see Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War, 1917–1919. His date of death is provided by “Dr. Francis T. Williams” [obituary].

734  For Wilson’s date of birth and R.F.C./R.A.F. service, see The National Archives (United Kingdom), Royal Air Force officers’ service records 1918–1919, record for Bishop Arlington Wilson.

735  See Barrass, “No 71 – 75 Squadron Histories” and “No 91 – 95 Squadron Histories.”

736  See Ancestry.com, Border Crossings: From Canada to U.S., 1895–1956, record for Bishop A Wilson (Havre, June 4, 1936).

737  For his date of death, see Ancestry.com, British Columbia, Canada, Death Index, 1872–1990, record for Bishop Arlington Wilson.

738  See Revell, “Paul Winslow.” For Winslow’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Paul Winslow.

739  For his date of birth, see Ancestry.com, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917–1918, record for Frederic B Wipperman; for his death date, see Missouri Office of the Secretary of State, Missouri Death Certificates 1910–1961, record for Frederic B. Wipperman.

740  See “Personals,” p. 111.

741  See entry for Wolfe in Maryland War Records Commission, Maryland in the World War and “Eugene L. Wolfe Jr., 78, owned electrical company” [obituary]. For Wolfe Sr.’s date of death, see Weeks, “Eugene Lewis ‘Pete’ Wolfe.”

742  Jean Grahame Wright’s date of birth is taken from Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Jean Wright. Her month and year of death were supplied in a personal communication from her great granddaughter. For her marriage, see Ancestry.com, England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916–2005, record for Jean G Wright. On her husband, see “Allen Picton Osler Meredith.”

743 For Marion Grahame Wright’s date of birth, see Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Marion Wright; for her date of death, see Ancestry.com, Ottawa, Canada, Beechwood Cemetery Registers, 1873–1990, record for Marion Grahame Wright. For Henry Pulteney Grahame Wright’s date of birth, see his attestation paper at Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Henry Paltenez [sic] Wright. His date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, Ottawa, Canada, Beechwood Cemetery Registers, 1873–1990, record for Doctor Henry P Wright. Marion Gertrude Wright’s date of birth is provided at Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Irarion [sic] Wright; her date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, Ottawa, Canada, Beechwood Cemetery Registers, 1873–1990, record for Marion Gertrude Wright. See also Bensley, “Marion Gertrude Wright (1896–1987).”

744 For Palmer Howard Wright’s birth date, see his attestation paper at Ancestry.com, Canada, Soldiers of the First World War, 1914–1918, record for Palmer Howard Wright. His date of death and occupation are taken from Ancestry.com, Ottawa, Canada, Beechwood Cemetery Registers, 1873–1990, Palmer Howard Wright.

745  Phoebe Wright’s date of birth is provided by Ancestry.com, 1901 Census of Canada, record for Febbe [sic] Wright. Her date of death is taken from Ancestry.com, U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935–Current, record for Phoebe Fitz.

746  Cushing, The Life of Sir William Osler, p. 1293.

747  See “Base Hospitals Abroad” and Ford, Administration American Expeditionary Forces, Chapter 24.

748  On Reginald Fitz, see Harvard College, “Reginald Fitz.”